Human renin was extracted according to Helmer's method. In order to purify renin in a form free from angiotensinase, two procedures were used; one was fractionation with ammonium sulfate and the other was pH treatment, acidification to pH 2.9 and alkalinization to pH 9.8. Incubating plasmas with this renin, renin substrate (angiotensinogen) was estimated in 20 normotensive subjects. No quantitative correlation was found between renin and its substrate.
Two cell lines in vitro were established from the mouse embryos of dd-stock. Both cell lines have shown abundant and constant growth after four to five months lag period. Both lines (designated DD-1 and DD-2) had discriminating charac-teristics each other in their doubling time, the growth response for peptones in the culture medium, morphology and karyotype, but their transplantability and susceptibility for poliovirus were equally negative so long as the experiment was performed. The process to the establishment of cell lines in vitro was discussed.
Speleotomy was re-evaluated in the present study with the observations in 11 cases; and a modification of Staehler's operation, “cavity constriction”, was introduced. Staehler's operation was carried out in 6 cases and “cavity con-striction” in 5 cases. In most cases the presence of cavities in the kidney was suspected on the intravenous pyelograms, and it was confirmed by retrograde pyelography combined with pneumoretroperitoneum and by aortography. After the operation, improvement in urinary findings and in the renal function was noted in several cases. Irrespective of duration of chemotherapy, tubercle bacillus was demonstrated in the cavities of 6 cases. In all cases, where cavity con-striction was carried out, postoperative fistula closed within 2 weeks, while in some cases where Staehler's operation was carried out, the fistula persisted much longer.
It has been demonstrated in the author's previous experiments that normal bile has a remarkable inhibitory effect on bacterial β-glucuronidase but such an effect is not ascribable to any of known constituents of bile. Experiments were undertaken to identify glucaro-1, 4-lactone, a lactone of glucaric acid and strong inhibitor of β-glucuronidase, in bile. When bile was boiled with HCl to remove bile pigments as a deposit and then dialyzed against water, the inhibitory effect disappeared. A condensate of the dialyzate, on the other hand, exhibited a remarkable inhibitory power. This fraction gave a positive qualitative reaction for sugar acids and their relatives, and revealed on paper chromatography a spot with the same Rf as reference glucaro-1, 4-lactone. Oral administration of glucaro-l, 4-lactone calcium salt to patients with biliary infection was always followed by a more than 50 per cent decrease of the bacterial β-glucuronidase activity of bile. From these results, it has been concluded that bile contains glucaro-1, 4-lactono as a normal constituent and this compound is responsible for the inhibitory effect of bile on β-glucuronidase of bacterial origin.
A histochemical study of 11 patients with epidermolysis bullosa group was presented. No prominent changes were found in the enzymatic activities in the epidermis of epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica. In the papillary dermis, how-ever, reduction of alcian blue affinity and lack of toluidine blue metachromasia were found. In the simple form of the disease, the activities of succinic and NAD-linked dehydrogenases and cytochrome oxidase were decreased in the basal cells at the edges of blister.
HeLa cells, spleens and lumbar spinal ganglia of 9-15 day chick embryos are cultured either by Maximow's double cover-slip method or by the roller tube method and the influence of GABA, GABOB and GOBAB upon them are examined. Upon HeLa cells, in the medium (YLE 90%+bovine serum 10%) to which the 3 substances are added each in 5mg/cc, cell proliferation is obviously inhibited in each case. In 0.5mg/cc and 0.05mg/ce, GABOB and GOBAB hardly differ from the control medium while GABA shows a little tendency of promoting prolifera-tion. Upon migrated cells from the spleen, as the result from adding the 3 substances each in 5mg/ce to the medium (Eagle 90%+horse serum 10%), migration of cells is strongly inhibited in each case. In 0.5mg/ce, GABA hardly differs from the control medium, GABOB hastons migration, though slightly, while GOBAB shows the tendency of inhibition. Upon spinal ganglion cells, cultured in the medium (Eagle 90%+horse serum 10%), to which the 3 substances are added in 0.5mg/cc, GABA and GABOB are effective for maintenance and differentiation of nerve cells and for satellite cell association as well, but upon supporting cells, the 3 substances are inhibitory in early stage of culture and GOBAB is rather remarkable of the three.
Bacterial endotoxin injected i. p. into mice reduces the Po2 of tissues. The lowest value is reached in 24 hours. The Po2 levels in germfree mouse tissues are depressed more than those in conventional mice. Reduction in tissue Po2 evoked by endotoxin may be responsible for protection against wholebody exposure to ionizing radiation following endotoxin administration.
The thin layer chromatographic separation of the thyroid hormones in human plasma, including l-thyroxin (T4), 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), 3, 5-diiodo-l-tyrosine (DIT), 3-monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and inorganic iodide (I-), was investigated. The stationary phase was Kieselguhr G (Merck) and the solvent system was n-butanol-chloroform (4:7) saturated with ammonia (ammonia atmosphere) at 32°C. The Rf values of pure thyroid hormones obtained were inorganic iodide 0.81, MIT 0.16, DIT 0.09, T3 0.57 and T4 0.36, respectively. The same Rf values were obtained when pure thyroid hormones were added to human plasma and extracted after modified Block's method. The radioautogram of the plasma extract of 131I-treated thyrotoxic patient showed corresponding radioactive spots with pure samples of T3, T4 and inorganic iodide on a thin layer chromatogram. The present method might be useful in studying the metabolism of thyroid hormone because of its many advantages such as shortness of development time, high sensitivity for detection, clear separation of each spot and simplicity of procedure.
As the beginning of the listening as a learned function occurs before the age of two years, it is necessary to detect the young children of suspected hearing loss. In these cases, the fitting of the hearing aid becomes a matter of necessity to learn normal speech and language. Since 1952 the experimental investigation has been carried on over 400 children at the University of Denver Hearing Center. The testing procedure is as follows: At the initial session, high and low frequency noise sufficiently above the threshold is utilized to determine the child's responses. And then pure tone or filtered familiar sounds are presented to the child through the loud-speaker or the earphone, and these responses are scored. Those cases in which these sets of scores relate closely indicate the reliability of the testing procedure. As soon as the child's hearing level has been established, various hearing aids are used to determine which instrument gives him the best results.
Of various renal arteriographic methods, selective renal arteriography is the most excellent to produce distinct renal arteriograms. This method is, however, technically so complicated, and requires a long time and cannot visualize both the right and left renal arteries. Therefore, we employed a balloon-fastened catheter and succeeded in visualizing both the renal arteries at the same time by taking a radiograph, while the blood stream running to the lower extremities was blocked at the bifurcation of common iliac arteries with the balloon. This ballooncatheter method is technically simple and needs no fluoroscopic examination for determining where to place the catheter. In addition, it can be done in a comparatively short time. We, therefore, present here the technique and effects of this radiographic method. In addition, we describe in detail the findings on the cases we examined by this renal arteriography and discuss its clinical value. We would like here to recommend the balloon-catheter method especially for visualization of Goldblatt type renal arterial stenosis, for it can distinctly visualize the lesion.
It was found in the preceding experiment that a black pigment isolated from black-appearing gallstones resembled melanins but was definitely different from the latter in the chemical structure. As a continuation of the study, this report depicts the results of comparison of the pigment with black substances prepared in vitro from various bilirubin materials. When synthetic calcium bili-rubinate or powdered calcium bilirubinate stone was subjected to heating with hydrochloric acid followed by a certain fractionation procedure, the final products were almost identical with the black pigment in question both in general properties and spectroscopic findings. Free bilirubin also yielded the same product when it was heated with hydrochloric acid in the presence of a small amount of calcium chloride. These facts seem to justify that the black pigment of gallstones is of bilirubin origin. Furthermore, it was revealed that conversion of bilirubin into the black pigment involved a series of polymerizing reactions, the pigment being a high-molecular weight polymer.