In 10 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (distal RTA), 8 with multiple tubular dysfunction, and 15 with primary hyperparathyroidism including 8 of skeletal syndrome, the rates of ammonium excretion without the influence of any medications were determined in respective specimens of 24-hour urine. In the majority of the patients with either distal RTA, multiple tubular dysfunction, or skeletal syndrome of primary hyperparathyroidism, the rates of ammonium excretion corrected for creatinine clearance were significantly higher than conceivable in reference to the urinary pH levels. The rates of increase in ammonium excretion tended to be higher in the cases with than in those without metabolic acidosis and/or hypokalemia. Metabolic acidosis attributable to RTA was observed in all cases with skeletal syndrome but in none without this syndrome among the patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. It is concluded that in the patients with RTA, proximal and distal alike, urinary excretion of ammonium is generally increased. This may well be attributed to the increased renal ammonium production in response to acidosis and/or potassium deficiency. The greater secretion of parathyroid hormone in cases with skeletal syndrome than in cases with other syndromes of primary hyperparathyroidism is regarded accounting for the higher incidence of RTA in the former than in the latter.ammonium excretion; renal tubular acidosis; hyperparathyroidism
Microbiological and pathological examinations of the respiratory tract of young hamsters infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae by inhalation of aerosol were carried out for up to a maximum of 98 days after infection. Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms were found mainly in the pharynx and larynx for the first two weeks, then they continued to proliferate in the main bronchi or intrapulmonary bronchi for up to 98 days. On the third day after infection, inflammatory changes consisting mostly of infiltration with lymphocytes and monocytes appeared in the bronchial epithelium. These inflammatory changes proceeded to the peribronchial or interstitial tissues and reached a maximum on the 21st day after infection. After that, they showed a tendency to decrease and were replaced partially by atelectatic and emphysematous changes. These pathological processes seemed to be associated with the presence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. On electron microscopic examination by the double staining and the ferritinantibody method, Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms were found among cilia and microvilli of the bronchial epithelium during the first two weeks. Structures resembling mycoplasmas, which bound ferritin were also located among the debris of exfoliated cells from epithelium. As the inflammatory process spread, exfoliation and desquamation of bronchial epithelium and increase of mucus-secreting cells, became more marked and eventually vacuolation in the remaining epithelial cells, with an increased number of basal cells was seen throughout the epithelium. In the terminal stage the ciliary epithelium was replaced partially by squamous epithelium. These studies, especially the identification of intact mycoplasma organisms at the surface of the epithelial cells, suggested that this may be the site of growth of this organism in the respiratory tract.
The relationships among platelet adhesiveness, platelet N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) content, platelet ATP content and lactic acid production rate were studied in human and rabbit. The NANA content of non-adhesive platelets was lower than that of platelets adhered on a glass bead surface. The treatment with neuramidase in vitro resulted in a marked decrease of NANA content and adhesiveness index in rabbit platelets. The long-term Warfarin administration reduced both NANA content and adhesiveness index in man and rabbit. NANA contents of platelets obtained from patients with ITP, von Willebrand's disease, SLE, uremia or liver cirrhosis, and patients under long-term Warfarin therapy were markedly reduced, accompanying with a decrease in adhesiveness index. A significant correlation was demonstrated between NANA content and adhesiveness index in platelets. ATP content and lactic acid production rate of non-adhesive platelets were markedly reduced. These results suggested that surface negative charge due to NANA plays a significant role in the mechanism of adhesion of the platelet on a glass bead surface and a metabolic energy supply is required for the following platelet aggregation.
The ratio of the amounts of catalase in liver supernatant of the normal to that of acatalasemia mice, determined by the immunochemical method, was 100 : 78. In turn, the ratio of the specific activities of catalase in the same samples was 100 : 31. Experimental results obtained suggested that 14C-leucine incorporating activity of liver microsomes from acatalasemia mouse in the cell-free protein bio-synthesis system was less than that from normal mouse liver microsomes. The possibility was also discussed that the enzymic activity of catalase molecules from the acatalasemia mice may be lower than that of the catalase molecules from normal mice.
Hard-ness of autopsied livers was quantitatively measured by a penetration method. A slight increase of hardness was observed in hepatic fibrosis, and marked increases in hepatic cirrhosis and carcinoma. There was statistically significant correlation between hardness of the liver and per cent of interstitial tissue.
Statistical studies were carried out on 422 cases of cutaneous candidiasis observed at Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Hospital, for the period of 15 years from 1958 to 1972. The incidence of this disease showed definite increase after the year of 1963, particularly in the latest two years. Candidiasis of the glabrous skin was the commonest among them, 77.8% in frequency. The annual incidence of paronychia et onychia blastomycetica and erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica represented 10.9% and 6.9%, respectively, and even in the latest two years, their numbers were stationary, a few in a year. On the other hand, infantile cutaneous candidiasis showed remarkable increase in number, so that the apparent increase after the year of 1963 would be attri-butable chiefly to the increase of infantile cutaneous candidiasis. During 5 years from 1968 to 1972, there were observed 77 cases of infantile candidiasis. It is noted that among these cases, the cases of the extensive and disseminated type showed significant increase in number and now they reached roughly to the level of ordinary genitor-inguinal types in number. The prolonged or erroneous use of topical corticosteroid is thought to attribute to the increase of infantile cutaneous candidiasis and to the development to extensive and disseminated type lesions.
What kind of food contained a large amount of mercury and how much of mercury was taken into our bodies via diets were studied on 5 daily diets. Inorganic and organic mercury contents were separatively measured on the dishes of each daily diet by the method of Magos. Daily intakes of inorganic., organic, and total mercury ranged 0.47-1.0, 2.68-70.04, and 3.25-70.92μg, respectively. Dishes of fish usually showed the largest mercury content in a daily diet, and the daily intake of mercury was mainly dependent upon the quantity and the kind of fish consumed. The second most important kind of dishes was that of egg, and the third one was boiled rice. By consuming one egg a day, about 1-2 ag mercury (70-90% is organic mercury) is ingested, and 0.4-2.8 μg of mercury (60-100% is organic mercury) is in 600g of boiled rice. In case of fish is consumed, the ranges of daily intakes of inorganic, organic, and total mercury are as narrow as 0.23-0.88, 1.53-3.22, and 2.25-3.99 μg. In terms of mercury contents in rice, our results differed from those previously published by Yajima or Kondo who estimated much larger values of daily intake of mercury from rice such as 34 or 19 μg. We need further studies on rice.
Muscle blood flow measurements were made with a heated thermocouple technique on the patients with ischemic muscles and on control subjects during and after contraction. Simultaneous recording of the muscle blood flow and electromyogram revealed that there is a direct correlation between the increase in the blood flow and the strength of muscular contraction. During strong sustained contraction, the initially increased blood flow fell toward the resting level followed by a reactive hyperemia, which was particularly marked in ischemic muscles. The findings suggested that the blood flow changes during contraction were related to mechanical processes, and that the post-contraction hyperemia was caused by the metabolic products in the ischemic muscles.
The pattern of urinary acid mucopoly-saccharide excretion before, during and after fresh plasma infusions to five patients with mucopolysaccharidosis has been studied using the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation methcd. In all of the patients (three cases with Hurler syndrome, one case with Scheie syndrome and one case with Morquio syndrome), the results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) The plasma infusions were followed by a transient decreased urinary excretion of acid mucopolysaccharides. 2) Furthermore, the infusions were followed by an increased excretion of the non-CPC-precipitates. 3) Ratios of acid mucopolysaccharides to non-CPC-precipitates showed the lowest values on the third or fourth day after plasma infusions. 4) It is suggested that plasma infusions did not modify the course of the patients with mucopolysaccharidosis.
The multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1 was inhibited by cytosine arabinoside HCl (Ara C) and its cyclic derivative 2, 2'-anhydro-1-19-u-arabinofuranosyl cytosine HCl (Cyclo C). However, 2, 2'-anhydro 1-13-u-arabinofuranosyl cytosine-3'-phosphate (Cyclo CP) showed a negligible activity against HSV at relatively high concentration.
The peripheral blood lymphocytes from 15 patients with multiple sclerosis were studied with respect to surface immunoglobulins by the fluorescent antibody technique. An increased proportion of immunoglobulin-bearing cells and abnormal ratios of cells with immunoglobulin light chains of type kappa and lambda were found.