Recent progresses in molecular and developmental biology provide us a good idea how differentiation of glial cells in the vertebrate nervous system is regulated. Combinations of positional cues such as secreted proteins and cell-intrinsic mechanisms such as transcription factors are essential for the regulation of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte differentiation from the neural epithelium. In contrast, regulatory mechanisms of glial differentiation from neural crest-derived cells in the peripheral nervous system are less understood. However, recent studies suggest that, at least in part, the peripheral gliogenesis is regulated by mechanisms, such as Notch signaling, that are also important for the gliogenesis in the developing central nervous system.
At rest, vascular reactivity assessed by the changes in pulsatility index (PI) is one indicator of vessel stenosis in some clinical/basic science research. However, all types of vessel stenosis do not show an alteration in the PI, because flow perfusion may be maintained by the development of collateral vessels such as in severe arterial stenosis or non-severe arterial stenosis. Therefore at rest, changes in the PI may not always be a precise indicator of vessel stenosis. However, a few studies have used the PI following exercise, which may provide additional information on hemodynamics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the exercise-related time course of the PI in the brachial artery after ischemic or non-ischemic isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) using Doppler ultrasound, and to determine the potential use of this parameter as an indicator of vascular disease. Ten healthy young male subjects performed IHE at 10% and 30% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 2-minutes (min) with or without arterial occlusion (AO), or 2-min of AO alone. Following each 2-min session, PI was determined during the 5-min recovery period. A significant difference in the recovery PI was observed between IHE, ischemic IHE, as well as AO alone. Exercise with AO significantly increased the reduction in the PI compared to exercise alone, or AO alone, at both 10% and 30%MVC. These results suggest, exercise-induced changes in the time course of the PI during recovery may potentially be a useful diagnostic tool. Exercise-induced ischemic state may potentially be a useful indicator for detecting arteriovascular disease, even if it is not detected by AO alone.
The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on oxidant/antioxidant metabolism are controversial and its effects on hepatic regeneration are not known. In this study, we investigated a possible beneficial effect of HBO therapy on oxidant and antioxidants levels during liver regeneration. To conduct this study, seventy percent hepatectomy was performed on forty-eight Spraggue-Dawley rats and the rats were divided into two equal groups: HBO-treated group and untreated group (non-HBO group). We determined the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker, and the levels of antioxidant enzymes/reagents, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activitiy, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), in the remnant liver samples. We also measured mitotic index (MI) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels to assess the degree of liver regeneration. HBO treatment significantly decreased MDA levels, whereas it increased SOD activity, GSH and Zn levels. In contrast, Cu levels were lower in the HBO-treated livers than the levels in the untreated remnant livers. The effect of HBO treatment may be mediated by the suppression of certain enzymes that are responsible for lipid peroxidation. In addition, HBO treatment may induce the production of antioxidant enzymes/reagents by remnant liver tissues. The HBO-treated rats maintained their body weights but the untreated rats lost body weights. HBO treatment also increased MI and PCNA levels, indicating HBO treatment enhances liver regeneration. These results indicate that HBO treatment has beneficial effects on liver regeneration by decreasing MDA and by increasing antioxidant activities. We therefore suggest that HBO therapy may be useful after liver resection.
Aortic ischemia-reperfusion (AIR) induced lung injury has already been documented. Kupffer cell blockage (KCB) with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) has also been shown to attenuate remote organ damage caused by ischemia reperfusion. The present study was designed to examine the effect of GdCl3 in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by aortic occlusion. Thirty-two rats were randomly allocated to four groups as follows: SHAM (Sham Laparotomy), SHAM+KCB, AIR, and AIR+KCB. An atraumatic microvascular clamp was placed across the infrarenal abdominal aorta just after its origin from the aorta for 30 minutes. The microvascular clamp on the infrarenal abdominal aorta was removed and reperfused for 60 minutes. GdCl3 was given 24 hours prior to the experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed in lung tissues. MDA level and MPO activity in the AIR group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. When compared to AIR group, KCB with GdCl3 significantly decreased MDA level and MPO activity in the AIR+KCB group. These results suggest that GdCl3 attenuates the lung injury caused by AIR. The effects of GdCl3 on reduced lung damage may be mediated through significant decreases in both MDA level and MPO activity.
This study was initiated to examine if the life away from home and participation in sport activities affect nutritional health among girl university students. For this purpose, anthropometric data, peripheral blood and spot urine samples, 24-hour food duplicate samples, and answers to questionnaires were collected from 71 girl students at 19 to 23 years of ages who provided informed consent to participate in the study. Of the 71 participants, 29 and 42 participants lived in their homes or outside, respectively, and 23 subjects participated in sport activities whereas 48 subjects did not. Hematology, serum biochemistry and nutrient intakes were evaluated in comparison with the life conditions (home vs. dormitory, boarding house, etc.) and participation in sport activities. The population studied had insufficient intake of energy, protein, and minerals such as Ca and Fe. Those who lived in home or participated in sport activities took more energy and protein (although not the two minerals) than others. Skipping of breakfast was more common among those who lived away from home and had no sport activity. Thus, two social factors of life in home and participation in sport clubs contribute favorably for better food habits, but not necessarily improved intakes of Ca and Fe.
The involvement of chymase has been implicated in fibrotic response to tissue injuries. Besides its direct action, chymase indirectly promotes fibrotic response by generating angiotensin (Ang) II from Ang I. In the present study, we examined whether chymase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), that also generates Ang II, were activated in the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis induced by paraquat (PQ) in hamsters. In an acute PQ intoxication group, PQ was administered subcutaneously and the lungs were excised four days after administration. In a chronic PQ intoxication group, PQ was administered at the same dose once a week for six weeks. The lungs were excised five weeks after the last administration. On dissection, alveolar hemorrhage and capillary stasis were found in the acute PQ intoxication group while interstitial pulmonary fibrosis was found in the chronic PQ intoxication group. The pulmonary tissue chymase activity was elevated in both intoxication groups when compared with a respective age-matched, vehicle (saline)-administered group. Pulmonary tissue ACE activity, on the other hand, decreased in both intoxication groups. These data suggested that activated chymase may be involved in the establishment of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in hamsters.
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Molecular structural analysis of Stx-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) will be helpful for development of therapeutics and prophylactics for STEC infection. In this study, we cloned the genes of Stx 1-neutralizing mAb, termed 5-5B from hybridoma cells by phage display system and characterized its recombinant Fab (rFab) fragment. 5-5B rFab fragment reacted with Stx1, but not with Stx2 and bovine serum albumin (BSA). It also showed the neutralizing activity against the cytotoxicity of Stx1. These results imply that 5-5B rFab fragment is functionally identical to parent mAb. The variable heavy (VH) and light domains were found to be highly homologous with the derived germ line sequences. As for VH domain, the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) showed higher replacement/substitution mutation ratio than that in the frame work regions. Among the regions, CDR2 showed the most frequent nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. These results suggest that heavy chain CDR2 may mainly be associated with the 5-5B function, that is neutralizing cytotoxicity of Stx1.
There was no device to grade visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have therefore developed an instrument capable of measuring and quantifying the visual capabilities, and here present the results from patients with RP. In total, 118 eyes of 59 patients, 26 men and 33 women, with RP were studied. Seven eyes had hand movement (HM) and eight had light perception (LP) vision, and the others had better visual acuity. The Low Vision Evaluator (LoVE) consists of a pair of goggles with white, light-emitting diodes as the stimulus, a control box, an on-off button to signal the detection of the stimulus, and a printer for permanent records. There are 15 luminance levels of stimuli (combination of 5 intensities and 3 durations). The stimuli are delivered in a random sequence with an audio signal presented 0.3 seconds prior to the light stimulus. Each eye was tested separately, and each stimulus magnitude (intensity × duration) was presented 3 times for a total of 27 stimuli per eye. With 6 catch trials (audio signal without a light stimulus), a total of 60 trials were examined in a full examination. The conventional visual acuity and kinetic visual fields were determined. 59 patients had different visual acuities that ranged from no light perception (NLP) to 1.5 vision, and visual field sizes that ranged from 0.0001 to 3.96 steradians. The visual acuity and visual field size were significantly correlated with the LoVE score (r=0.58 and 0.64, respectively; p<0.01). These results indicate that the LoVE is capable of grading the visual function of RP patients with various visual acuities and visual fields. The testing procedures are simple for the patient and examiner, and this instrument can be used to assess the effectiveness of medical and surgical therapy.
Urinary bladder epithelial cells play an important role in the host defense against urinary tract infections. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a potent cytokine that regulates immune responses by inducing multiple genes in many types of cells including urinary bladder epithelial cells. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a member of the DExH-box family, which is involved in various reactions related to RNA metabolism, and is induced in leukemic cells by retinoic acid or in endothelial cells by lipopolysaccharide. We have studied the expression of RIG-I in T24 cells, a cell line derived from human urinary bladder epithelial carcinoma cells. IFN-γ stimulated T24 cells to express RIG-I mRNA and protein in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of RIG-I in the urinary bladder epithelium from a patient with chronic urinary tract infection and in a bladder epithelial carcinoma. We conclude that RIG-I may play some role in inflammatory reactions in the urinary tract epithelium.
The aim of this study was to investigate the oxido-reductive reactions of human hemoglobin with pyrogallol and the metabolism of pyrogallol by the protein, which contains a protoporphyrin IX like cytochrome P-450. Pyrogallol, having three hydroxy groups at the adjacent positions in the benzene ring, oxidized human oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin and reduced human methemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin. Since superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibited these reactions extensively, active oxygens such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide were considered to be involved in the oxido-reductive reaction of human hemoglobin by pyrogallol. It was also found that the metabolism of pyrogallol to purpurogallin occurred quickly in human erythrocytes, i.e., when pyrogallol was added to human erythrocyte suspension, it oxidized intracellular hemoglobin and produced purpurogallin. The metabolism of pyrogallol to purpurogallin was explained by the pyrogallol oxidation with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide produced during the oxido-reductive reactions of human hemoglobin with pyrogallol. The present results show that human erythrocytes can metabolize pyrogallol, suggesting that the cells may be involved in the metabolism of some drugs in the human body.
A comprehensive Korean competence scale (KCS) designed for Korean older adults, was developed and its construct validity evaluated. KCS assesses their higher levels of functional competence than activities of daily livings (ADL), necessary for independence in the home and community. The internal structure of the scale was tested using an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with two elderly Korean sample groups. As expected, the exploratory factor analysis result demonstrated a three-factor solution comprised of the following three domains: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The confirmatory factor analysis results showed that an acceptable solution could be estimated for a second-order factor model comprised of these factors. These findings provide evidence for the construct validity of the instrument and have implications for future research on factorial invariance.
The glycoprotein B (gB) region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major envelope glycoprotein that is a principal target of neutralizing antibodies and is known to stimulate the immune response of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. HCMV is currently classified into four genotypes on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the gB region. The presence of HCMV in patients under 3 years of age was determined by subjecting urine samples taken from the patients to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Analysis by direct sequencing of the gB region was carried out in 90 cases. These cases were grouped into the gB genotype 1 and gB genotype 3. Of 28 cases with a peak serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level(≥100 IU/l), the duration of observed serum ALT elevation in the gB genotype 1 patients (166.7±126.7 days [mean±S.D.] [19 cases]) was significantly longer than that in the gB genotype 3 patients (39.7±31.7 days [9 cases]) (p<0.01). In the 54 cases with a serum ALT level(≥50 IU/l), similar tendency was seen (p<0.05). These findings suggest that when serum ALT elevation is confirmed in young children infected with HCMV, analysis of the gB region is helpful for prediction of the duration of serum ALT elevation in the early stage of infection.
The authors report a rare case of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin initially diagnosed as a metastatic adenocarcinoma. The tumor occurred in the right axilla in a 75-year-old man. Initial pathological diagnosis was metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, no primary focus was found in the body. The revised diagnosis by the authors was primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma. The tumor (1.5 cm) was characterized by proliferation of atypical epithelial cells arranged in cell nests with many pseudolumens resembling adenoid cystic carcinoma. It was also characterized by much mucinous stroma or pool around tumor cells. No apparent eccrine or apocrine differentiation was noted histologically and immunohistochemically. The present case suggests that primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma may be misdiagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma, and that it may resemble adenoid cystic carcinoma.
We have observed that the elevated plasma adenosine levels are associated with hyperuricemia in nonpreeclamptic twin pregnancies. In animal models, extracellular adenosine is taken up by cells to form adenine nucleotides or is degraded to other purine metabolites such as hypoxanthine, which is further metabolized to xanthine and uric acid. In this study, we measured plasma hypoxanthine levels to evaluate the role of adenosine in hyperuricemia among women with twin pregnancies. Maternal blood samples were taken in 13 twin and 20 singleton pregnancies at 35-36 weeks’ gestation. The average maternal plasma hypoxanthine level in twin pregnancies was significantly higher than that in singleton pregnancies. In addition, the plasma hypoxanthine levels have positive correlations both with plasma adenosine and serum uric acid levels. Our results support that an increased adenosine is the main factor contributing to hyperuricemia in twin pregnancies.
Conflicting views exist at the present regarding the influences of a deep saturation dive on liver function in divers. Therefore, we first reevaluated whether a deep saturation dive (400 msw) induces a hepatic disturbance. As the result, plasma activities of both transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) increased significantly, whereas cholinesterase (Ch-E) activity decreased markedly, being highly suggestive of liver dysfunction. Assuming that the liver dysfunction was attributable to oxidative stress, we next examined the effects of supplementation of antioxidants (600 mg of vitamin C, 150 mg of α-tocopherol, and 600 mg of tea catechins per day) on liver function in saturation divers. As was anticipated, the antioxidants taken appeared to prevent a hepatic disturbance, indicating that a deep saturation dive provokes liver dysfunction probably due to oxidative stress. Thus, we recommend that saturation divers should take supplements of antioxidants.