The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 71, Issue 3
Displaying 1-7 of 7 articles from this issue
  • Toshio Kurokawa, Tatuo Saito, Hiroshi Yonemura, Michio Kayaba, Kunio T ...
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 209-224
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
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  • Toshio Kurokawa, Tatuo Saito, Junji Fujita, Hidehisa Onodera, Kuniharu ...
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 225-235
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
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  • Tatuo Saito, Hiroshi Yonemura, Michio Kayaba, Kunio Tada, Kazuo Uruga, ...
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 237-247
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    With the aim of furnishing fundamental data for cytological diagnosis of gastric cancer, two experiments were made. In one, direct smear preparations were made from the cancerous and non-cancerous foci of the stomach which had undergone a gastric resectomy and were examined to establish the criteria of malignancy based on cytological features. It became thereby apparent that no single criterion is sufficient to establish conclusively the presence of malignancy, but the fulfillment of a number of criteria provide sufficient evidence for malignancy. In the other experiment, the action of various types of mounting media on cancer cells was studied with phase-contrast microscopy. It was thereby clearly indicated that 5% glucose solution and human blood plasma are commendable as medium for keeping the specimens for cytological diagnosis of gastric cancer, as well as that the presence of both free hydrochloric acid and pepsin seems to play an important parts in inducing cellular damage.
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  • Masanori Mita
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 249-259
    Published: 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 17, 2010
    The effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and γ-amino-β-hydroxy butyric acid (GABOB) on the avoidance conditioned reflexes (CR) in dogs were investigated. The results obtained as follows:
    1. A prolongation of latency and decrement of percentage frequency of CR were observed during the course of acute extinction and discrimination.
    2. Similar changes of latency and percentage frequency were observed following intravenous and intracisternal administration of GABA or GABOB. There was no marked difference between effective doses of GABA and GABOB.
    3. The positive conditioned reflexes of discrimination were inhibited following the intravenous administration of GABGB.
    4. The abnormal behavior observed in the experimental situation (experimental neurosis) disappeared, though temporarily, following the intracisternal administration of GABOB.
    I wish to thank Prof. K. Motokawa for his invaluable discussion and suggestions throughout the course of the experiment and the preparation of the manuscript.
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  • Koiti Motokawa, Eizo Yamashita, Tetsuro Ogawa
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 261-272
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    Receptive fields of single units in the carp's retina were explored with a small spot of white and monochromatic lights. Well-isolated single spike discharge 100-200 μV in amplitude was recorded with 5M NaCl-filled micropipettes about 1 μ in tip diameter.
    1. The dimension of the receptive field in the dark-adapted retina was as large as 3mm. in radius.
    2. When the response was ‘off’ at the center of the receptive field, it was ‘on’ at the periphery, and ‘on-off’ in the intermediary zone.
    3. With white light three types of response pattern, on ' center units, ‘off’ center units and ‘on-off’ center units were distinguished.
    4. The type of response pattern was different according to the wavelength of the light used. For example, an ‘off’ center unit as determined with white light was also an ‘off’ center unit when searched with red light, but an ‘on-off’ center unit when explored with blue-green light.
    5. In some elements the type of response was fixed throughout the receptive field and independent of the wave-lengths.
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  • Takashi Iwabuchi
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 273-290
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    The fast advance of modern brain surgery since the beginning of the current century has brought solution to many a difficult problem, and yet all the efforts of many workers in this field have failed to arrive at definitive answer on many points. One of these unsolved questions is the question of hyperthermia often experienced after brain surgery. In reviewing the past workers on this question, we find there are not a few reports on experimental hyperthermia6)16)-41) induced by puncture or injury, in various parts of the brain since the days of Ott16) and Aronsohn & Sachs, 17)-19) but in most of these studies, rabbits were used as the experimental animals, but rabbits are so labile in their body temperature and the experiments were carried out with so little attention to the change in temperatures, (which by the way amounted only a rise of 0.2°C_??_1.0°C) induced merely by the restraint and the surgical interference on the animals, we feel justified in discounting the value of such works. Under such a circumstance, it is natural that there has been no generally acceptable solution on the problem of the exact localization of thermal center.
    Since many cases have been reported in which no hyperthermia was induced following unerring introduction of the puncture needle into sites described as the location of the thermal center, 46) there have a considerable number of authors who have expressed doubt on the presence of a “ thermal center ” at all.42)-49)
    Now, for the study of a method for treating postoperative hyperthermia, it is indispensable first of all to succeed in inducing central hyperthermia in experimental animals. It is, however, a very difficult proposition to produce such animals with central hyperthermia, seeing that the problem where the pyrogenetic center is exactly located remains yet unsolved, and in the copious literature on the subject, I could not find a single report of 100% success in producing such animals, most of the authors merely confessing the difficulty of the experimental production.6)49) So, the present author was induced to make the attempt of producing central-hyperthermal cats by application of a variety of surgical methods.
    As the sites pointed to as the possible pyrogenetic center, we may enumerate the pons, 17) the upper part of the corpora quadrigemina, 20) the thalamus, 21)-24) the corpus striatum, 19)21)23)-31) the periphery of the third ventricle etc., 32)-35) but more recently, the hypothalamus5)6)32)36)-39) and the tuber cinereum16)40)41) have come more into attention in this connection, the former being said to contain the heat-radiation center in its aterior portion and the pyrogenetic center in its posterior portion.38) Therefore, I first tried puncture, electrical stimulation and electrocoagulation in these parts, but hyperthermia over 40°C followed in only 2 of the total 85 cases, and I was convinced that mere simple stimulation or destruction of these parts cannot induce hyperthermia. During this series of experiments, however, I found hyperthermia induced in 2 cases, in either of which a rather large hematoma was found spreading from the third ventricle into its surrounding tissue, in contradistinction to all the other non-hyperthermic cases.
    Accordingly, I concluded that a wide-scoped stimulation of the periphery of the third ventricle is effective in causing hyperthermia and proceeded to the experiment of introducing sodium citrate-added blood directly into the third ventricle and found hyperthermia induced in nearly all the cases.
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  • Masa Nakamura, Katsuyuki Tsushima
    1960 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 291-304
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    1. Changer in cardiac rate and blood pressure when the hand or foot was immersed in cold water was investigated in human subjects. 2. When the water temperature was above 12°C no change in cardiac rate was observed in spite of the subjects' distinct feeling of cold. At temperatures below 12°C the heart became accelerated, along with a rise of blood pressure and respiratory rate. The cardiac rate, after it had attained its peak value in 60 to 90 seconds of immersion, showed a tendency to return gradually to its original rate notwithstanding that the hand was remaining in cold water (adaptation).
    3. In cases when the water temperature was below 12°C, the increase in cardiac rate changed in a linear function with the logarithm of water temperature. It is also proportional to the area of the skin exposed to cold, or to the sum of areas when several parts of hands or feet were cooled simultaneously (spatial summation).
    4. With the temperature of water sufficiently low, an aching sensation (so-called “cold pain”) was aroused shortly after immersion beside the sensation of cold. This pain also tended to subside spontaneously after a few minutes. Almost at the same time and in the same pace there took place the subsidence of increase in heart rate, of rise in blood pressure as described above, concomitantly with a slight rise of skin temperature which had fallen to its minimum value.
    5. When the blood circulation to the immersed part was arrested neither adaptation of cold pain nor that of cardiovascular reactions were observed.
    6. These facts indicate that the cardiac rate and blood pressure changes are reflexes brought about by local cooling, for which predominantly the sensation of pain rather than cold is responsible, and suggest that the phenomena of adaptation in cardiovascular response are probably based on a common factor, the adaptation of cold pain. The cause of the latter may be sought in a possible increase of peripheral blood flow as a reaction to local cooling.
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