EMG of the ureter between the pyeloureteral and the ureterovesical junctions of 38 adult dogs was observed under normalcy, and following i. v. injection of 2% xylocaine and 2% novocaine solutions and periureteral injection of 2% xylocaine solution. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The normal ureteral peristaltic discharges always arise at the pyeloureteral junction and reach the ureterovesical junction, and the propagation velocity of these discharges was higher in the middle part of the ureter than in its upper and lower parts. 2. Following i. v. injection of 4mg./kg. and 10mg./kg. of 2% xylocaine solution, 1) the discharge frequency was definitely increased, 2) the velocity of propagation was accelerated, 3) the intervals between discharges were markedly shortened, groups of discharges of Shiratori et al's14) Group I or II being formed, 4) Type II wave pattern changed into Type I and Type I waves were accompanied by perceptible minor negative deflections and 5) in some cases, feeble waves fading out midways were found emerging in the stage when the frequency after reaching the maximum tended to come down to normal level. 3. Following i. v. injection of 4mg./kg. of 2% novocaine, the frequency increased and the velocity of propagation showed down, but after injection of 10mg./kg. of the same solution, only the frequency rose a little, the propagation velocity, the amplitude, the duration and the wave pattern remaining almost unaffected. 4. The interesting finding that the sensory depressans, xylocaine and novocaine stimulate the ureteral peristaltic movement was obtained. 5. Following injection of xylocaine around the pyeloureteral junction, a series of normoperistaltic discharges was emitted when the site of injection was around the middle part of the ureter, simultaneous antiperistaltic discharges upwards and the normoperistaltic discharges downwards from the site occured serially, and when the injection was administered in the surrounding tissue of the ureterovesical junction, a series of upward antiperistaltic discharges was emitted. The frequency and the duration time of these serial discharges were the largest in the pyeloureteral junction, next in the ureterovesical junction and the lowest in the middle part of the ureter. 6. It was concluded that the peristaltic movement of the ureter was determined in its direction by the site, normoperistaltic movement alone arising at the pyeloureteral junction, antiperistaltic movement alone at the ureterovesical junction and normo- as well as anti-peristaltic movements at any other middle part of the ureter.
Various phenomena, apparently concerned with the X-agent, which were previously found with the bacteria and the protein solutions have been demonstrated with human red blood cells. It is believed that red cells, when mixed with an adequate hemolytic agent, such as hypotonic salt solution, will liberate a quantity of hemoglobin corresponding to the degree of change induced in the cells by the X-agent, so that the effect of the X-agent can be estimated by the measurement of the liberated hemoglobin amount. Since the hemoglobin liberation or the hemolytis is irreversible, the effect of the X-agent could be estimated in this manner without fearing of reversibility of the change induced by the agent.
It has been confirmed using red blood cells that the X-agent is changing unceasingly with time, presenting fluctuations in both quantity and quality. Evidence was presented that various proteins, such as enzymes and viruses, are changing constantly with the X-agent. The X-agent is changing not only with time but, also with place, so that proteins, including living things, are to be changed with both time and place, resulting in the revelation of an unsystematic irregularity in the experimental data.
Electrical measurements were done on glycerol-treated crayfish muscle cells with intracellular recording. 1. Decrease of the resting membrane potential was caused by van Harreveld solution containing glycerol (100mM-2M). 2. Glycerinated muscles responded to the change of external potassium concentration with changes in membrane potential. 3. The effective resistance of the cell membrane was decreased and local action potentials were reduced in glycerinated muscle. 4. The reduced action potential was restored to normal by application of ATP dissolved in van Harreveld solution at concentration of 0.1 per cent.
The authors reported the first case ever reported of chromoblastomycosis primarily occurring in the liver without any dermal manifestations. The case, a boy 3 years and 5 months old, began to eat shred tobacco only around 1 year old and later on acquired the habit of smoking cigarettes. During about 3 months of the clinical course, the patient showed fever and swelling of the liver and died of cerebral symptoms. Autopsy revealed multiple yellow-brown granulomas chiefly in the liver and also in the lymph nodes in the abdomen and the thorax, and multiple metastasis to the brain. We failed in isolating and cultivating the pathogenic fungi, but the existence of chromobolastomycosis was ascertained, considering the histological features of the granulomas, and the characteristic form and color of the dark-brown small bodies or the hyphae found in the foci in innumerable abundance.
Seizure discharges were investigated in the exposed dorsal hippocampus of the rabbit paralyzed with succinylcholine. 1. Tonic and/or clonic seizure discharges lasting about 10-20 sec. were elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. In the tonic phase of seizure discharge potentials were discharged at a rate of 20-40 per sec. 2. The seizure potentials showed the maximal amplitude in a range of 0.5-0.8mm. below the ependymal surface, being always negative in sign in this range. 3. The slow spike in response to stimulation of the alveus was abolished only by the seizure discharge of tonic pattern and recovered rapidly when the seizure discharge abated. 4. The slow wave in response to stimulation of the level of the basal dendrites of the hippocampal pyramids was abolished completely by the seizure discharge and was depressed for a considerably long time after the seizure discharge had subsided. 5. The wave and spike-like potential in response to stimulation of the level of the somata and apical dendrites of the hippocampal pyramids was augmented by the seizure discharge at least in the initial phase of seizure, being attenuated towards the end of seizure discharge. The wave and spike-like potential suffered postictal depression. 6. From these findings it was concluded that the somata and apical dendrites of the hippocampal pyramids are activated in the seizure discharge.