The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 51 , Issue 1-2
Showing 1-34 articles out of 34 articles from the selected issue
  • Yasue Okada
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-7
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Thus Ihave contrived a method of concentration by which I can produce a good result without any high speed centrifuger or other special furnishment. That is to say, it is a method that one takes sputum in evaporating-dish and heat and condense it. The method is quite con-venient and practicable to any general medical men.
    Thus, by this method, they can condense the sputum to 1/5-1/15 size of the original. Among the 16 experiments of the negative sputum I could find the bacilli in 10 examples; among 6 examples in which the bacilli could be, seen only by culture, the existence of the bacilli could be testified in 3 examples.
    In this method, the fixation and dyeing of the smeared sputum is quite the same as the preparation of ordinary speciment.
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  • Akira Sato, Kakujiro Sakai, Katsumi Hayashi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 8
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Kenji Kumagai
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 9-16
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Sinya Sasao
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 17-22
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Akira Sato, Taro Yoshiike
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 23-31
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masahiko Kuroya
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 32
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Michishiro Yamagishi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 33-49
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    It was my first intention to know the relation between Arakawa's reaction and the uric acid excretion. Animal experimentation reported in literature showed unanimously that animals fed-on B-avitaminotic food had an increased excretion of uric acid. Apparently healthy lactating mothers with milk negative to Arakawa's reaction are generally in a state of B-avitaminosis. If it is so, it will follow that Arakawa-negative mothers will excrete more uric acid per day than Arakawa-positive ones. This is the problem I wanted to solve.
    As it is, however, very difficult to collect whole day urine of these healthy mothers, I wanted to solve the problem indirectly. Lactating mothers whose sick infants had been admitted to our Department were made objects of investigation, because it was less difficult to collect their whole day urine and they might, as I thought, change their Arakawa's reaction during their more or less long stay at our Hospital.
    So I studied the relation of the change of Arakawa's reaction and the amount of uric acid excreted in 10 lactating mothers. When their Arakawa's reaction changed from worse to better, they were considered to have changed from worse to better with regard to their B-avitaminotic state. (This consideration was the natural result of a number of investigations from our Laboratory).
    The result was: 1. When Arakawa's reaction was positive, the amount of uric acid excreted was the smallest, and 2. in the case of completely or almost completely negative Arakawa's reaction, its amount was the largest. 3. And in the case of intermediate reactions, its amount was of intermediate values.
    It was thus highly probable that apparently healthy Arakawa-negative mothers, who are in a state of B-avitaminosis, would excrete a larger amount of uric acid per day than Arakawa-positive mothers.
    Besides, the following result was seen. Umemura2) of our Laboratory showed that Arakawa-positive mothers generally excreted a larger amount of urine per day than Arakawa-negative ones, and that specific gravity of urine was generally smaller in the former than in the latter.
    In my own investigation, when Arakawa's reaction improved, lactating mothers excreted generally a larger amount of urine per day and the specific gravity of their urine became smaller generally.
    What has been stated in the Summary will further be confirmed by the result of my own, which will be reported under the title: Influence of Vitamin B Administration upon Urinary Uric Acid Content and Arakawa's Reaction of Lactating Mothers.
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  • Masahiko Kuroya, Nobuo Ouchi, Masanori Katsuno
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 50
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Zensaku Yosizawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 51-55
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Nakao Ishida, Ken Katagiri, Reiko Chida, Toyo Hataya
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 56
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Syoh-Iti Osaki, Zensaku Yosizawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 57-61
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tatuzi Suzuki
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 62
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Syoh-Iti Osaki, Zensaku Yosizawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 63-64
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Noboru Hiyama
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 65-69
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shinji Takahashi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 70
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shinnan Go
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 71-79
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    I can resolve the question of why the local lesion does not occur when B. C. G. is vaccinated intraaxillarily. The reasons are the following.
    1. B. C. G., which is inoculated into the intraaxillary region, seems to be absorbed by way of the blood capillaries as well as lymphatic capillaries.
    2. In the intraaxillary region there is a large hole which has a spongy construction and well-developed lymph vessels and blood vessels.
    3. The substances (bacteria, dyes) which are inoculated into the intraaxillary region, are absorbed so readily, rapidly, and easily that the local lesion does not occur.
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  • Shinji Takahashi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 80
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Haruo Katsunuma
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 81-86
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) In the Stadie-Wu's method for hemoglobinometry the colorimetric ure is not sufficiently stable in color-tone.
    2) But the mixture becomes much stable in its color-tone when it is heated at 50_??_60°C after being added ferricyanide.
    3) This modification with heating, the author believes, can be recommended as an improvement of the method.
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  • Köiti Motokawa, Minoru Hukuda, Shinichiro Ohinata
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 87-95
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    It was proposed to analyse electroencephalograms (eeg) and to express them quantitatively with three statistical measures, mean amplitude _??_, mean period _??_ and persistence P. The persistence is the mean of the number of waves greater than _??_/2 following successively without inter-ruption.
    1. 50-250 eeg were taken at each subject and analysed. The histogram of P had its- maximum at the value of P 4-8, and the mean values of P were 9.5, 8, 24, 7.65, 7.1 and 4.98 in the standard passive state of consciousness of normal subjects.
    2. The theoretical meaning of persistence was discussed. The value of P 5.6 was calculated from the theory for the ideal eeg in which all waves are independent of one another and belong to one and the same population of waves.
    3. In general, the persistence is greater than 5.6, and this relation was regarded as expression of dependence among individual waves.
    4. The persistence is smaller than 5.6 in cerebral excitation and under other conditions that more than a single sort of waves appear in eeg. It was theoretically proven that the persistence can decrease below the ideal value 5.6 by mixing more than one sort of waves.
    5. Mixing of β-waves with normal α-waves reduces both P and _??_, whereas mixing of δ-waves with normal α-waves decreases P, but in-creases _??_.
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  • Yoshio Shikinami, Takashi Kutsuzawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 96
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Noboru Hiyama
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 97-100
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Motoyuki Utusi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 101-107
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Heparin and two glycidamins were isolated from the lung tissue of pig. One of the glycidamins contained hydrolysable sulfur.
    2. Heparin and the hydrolysable sulfur-containing glycidamin proved hemopoietic.
    3. The glycidamin devoid ofhydrolysable sulfur inhibited isoagglutination of A erythrocytes specifically.
    The costs of this work were covered by a grant by the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches of the Education Department, which is gratefully acknowledged.
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  • Nobuaki Sasano, Takeshi Kurobane
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 108
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 109-118
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 119-129
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Electrical energy per unit time of brain waves was measured on elec-troencephalograms of man and animal, and the following law was estab-lished with regard to the distribution of energy in the electroencephalo-gram, namely:
    ƒ(ε)dε=1/-εe-ε/-εdε,
    where ƒ(ε)dε represents the probability that energy ε lies between ε and ε+dε, and -ε the mean energy. To deduce this law theoretically from plausible assumptions, a statistical theory was advanced. An important conclusion from this theory is that the utilizable energy of the brain must be kept constant at its maximum, and this inference seems to be consistent with experimental evidence on brain metabolism: It can be explained also from this theory that the mean energy of brain waves increases under unfavorable conditions such as oxygen deficiency, narcosis etc.
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  • Tuneo Nagaoka
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 131-135
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tuneo Nagaoka
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 137-143
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 145-153
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The electrical excitability of the retina was measured in the dark with a light-sensation as an indicator.
    1. It was found that any part of the retina, when sensitized with light previously, becomes more sensitive to electrical stimulation. The electrical excitability reaches a maximum about 2 seconds after illumination irrespective of its intensity.
    2. For high intensities of sensitizing light the supernormal excitability is maximum at the fovea, and decreases towards the periphery.
    3. For sufficiently reduced intensities of light the supernormality is minimum at the fovea, and maximum at 40° from the fovea. This distribution of the electrical excitability agrees with the distribution of the light-sensitivity over the retina.
    These experiments suggest that the supernormal electrical excitability is an important measure applicable to researches on the mechanisms of daylight-and twilight vision.
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  • Koiti Motokawa, Kituya Iwama
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 155-164
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The electrical excitability of the human retina becomes supernormal after an illumination of the eye. The maximum increase ζ in electrical excitability expressed in percentage of the excitability in the dark varies with intensities of illumination. The relation between ζ and log intensity is represented by a single sigmoid curve at the fovea, but consists of two different sections outside the fovea.
    The double nature of the peripheral measurements very likely represents. rod function for the low intensity section and cone function for the high intensity section. The data for both cones and rods are adequately described by Hecht's equation KI2/(α-ζ)2.
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  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 165-173
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The electrical excitability of the human retina was measured by means of a constant current pulse 100 msec. in duration in the dark and after an illumination of definite duration and varying intensities. The increase in excitability due to illumination was expressed in percentage of the excitabi-lity in the dark before illumination, and plotted against the time interval, between the end of illumination and the electrical stimulation.
    1. The time course of so obtained curves varies with wave-lengths of light in such a manner that the crest time or time to the maximum in-creases as the wave-length decreases. The values of crest time for various colors are as follows: I sec. for red (650mμ), 1.25 sec. for yellow (585mμ), 2.25 sec. for green (530mμ) and 2.75 sec. for blue (470mμ).
    2. The crest time is entirely independent of intensities of illumination.
    3. Curves for varying intensities of one and the same colord light vary only in their teight and run completely parallel to one another, indicating that the intensity- and time factors of this phenomenon are independent of each other.
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  • Motoyuki Utusi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 175-177
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 179-187
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Spatial summation in the human retina was studied with increases of electrical excitability by illumination as the indes.
    1. The maximum incrase in electrical excitability is reached in 2 seconds after an illumination. This amount was expressed in percentage of the electrical excitability in the dark and denoted by ζ. The value of ζ after an exposure to five circular patches 1° in diameter was always higher than the value for a single patch of the same size. The closer the five patches to one another, the greater the value of ζ.
    2. Two semi-circles separated by an unstimulated region of 2° was used to study summation at various parts of the retina. The value of ζ was greater by a constant amount for both semi-circles together than for a single semi-circle irrespective of the location in the retina.
    3. ζ-log area curves were sigmoid in shape and their slope was the same in the fovea and in the periphery. These findings suggest that there are little regional differences with regard to summation.
    4. Two semi-circular patches in juxtaposition were employed to investigate the interaction between colored lights. Summation was most striking between same colored areas, and fairly marked between red and green fields or green and blue areas, but there was no indication of summation at all between red and blue areas. The result was explained on the basis of Young-Helmholtz's theory of color vision.
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  • Tatsuro Kobayashi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 189-196
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 1-2 Pages 197-205
    Published: October 31, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The electrical excitability of the eye increases temporarily after illumi-nation, and the time course of this variation is characteristic of the'wave-length of the light used for illumination. The sensibility of the eye to wave-length differences was studied with the time constant of th eleectrical excitability as the index.
    For a comparison, thresholds for hue discrimination were measured over the entire range of the spectrum. The curve for just perceptible dif-ferences in wave-lengths plotted against wave-lengths shows minima in the violet, blue-green, yellow and orange.
    As the time constant of the electrical excitability after illumination was chosen the crest time which means the interval between the end of illumina-tion and the maximum of excitability. The crest time increases in a characteristic manner as the wave-length λ is shortened. If the decrease of wave-length Δλ corresponding to a definite amount of increase in crest time Δτ is plotted against λ, a curve is obtained which represents a close copy of the curve for hue discrimination. This fact suggests that the physiological basis for hue discrimination lies in the periphery, as has been assumed in the theories of color vision.
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