ASAKI S. Tissue Solidification in Coping with Digestive Tract Bleeding: Hemostatic Effect of Local Injection of 99.5% Ethanol. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134(3), 223-227-Tatsuka et al. reported a local injection of 95% ethanol as a new endoscopic treatment of gastric protuberant lesions. In this method, the present author discovered that 99.5% ethanol injection has an excellent hemostatic effect. The author injected 99.5% ethanol into the cut-end of the stalk of 7 massively hemorrhaged cases encountered while performing double snare polypectomy. In all cases, the hemorrhage stopped within 5 or 15min. In 9 patients with hemorrhagic gastric or duodenal ulcer who were judged at emergency endoscopic examination as needing some hemostatic treatment, an injection of 99.5% ethanol into the bleeding site achieved a satisfactory hemostasis in all of them. Ethanol injection into the surrounding tissue close to the bleeding vessels, a few injecting sites selected usually at 1 to 2mm away from the bleeding vessels, 0.1 to 0.2ml a time, could instantly suppress even the pulsatile bleeding with no hazards. If this method is used carefully with endoscopic skill, this should become the first choice for the gastro-intestinal hemorrhage except varices.
WATANABE, Y, and MINAMI, R. Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines, Transformed byEpstein-Barr Virus, in the Enzymatic Study of Hereditary Lysosomal StorageDiseases. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134(3), 229-243-Assay conditions were studied for eight lysosomal enzymes in lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed by Epstein-Barr virus. The transformed lymphoblastoid cells retained all eight enzyme activities, though the levels sometimes differed from those in the peripheral lymphocytes or granulocytes. The levels of these eight lysosomal enzymes were measured in lymphoblastoid cells from 11 patients with hereditary lysosomal storage diseases-GMI-gangliosidosis, a variant of β-galactosidase deficiency (sialidase deficiency with a partial β-galactosidase deficiency), Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher disease, Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome and I-cell disease - and from 20 of their obligate heterozygotes. No activity of enzymes that were deficient in the respective disease, except I-cell disease, was detected in the lymphoblastoid cells from the patient. In I-cell disease, the cells showed lower levels of some enzyme activities. β-D-Galactosidase activity from heterozygotes of the patient with GMI-gangliosidosis and α-L-iduronidase activity from heterozygotes of the patient with Hurler syndrome were in carrier range. On sephadex G-150 gel filtration, β-D-galactosidase in control material gave two peaks (I and II). In GMI-gangliosidosis, peak II was absent and peak I was markedly diminished. Peak II in the heterozygotes was smaller than that of control. On DEAE cellulose column chromatography of hexosaminidase, two major isoenzymes (hexosaminidase A and B) were detected in control. However, hexosaminidase A was not detected in Tay-Sachs disease, and the ratios of hexosaminidase (Hex) A/Hex B in the parents were lower than those in control.
ISAWA, T., TESHIMA, T., HIRANO, T., EBINA, A. and KONNO, K. RadioaerosolInhalation Lung Cine-scintigraphy: a Preliminary Report. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 245-255-“Radioaerosol inhalation lung cine-scintigraphy”, a cinematographic display of the lungs following radioaerosol inhalation has been found to be extremely helpful not only to the visual assessment of mucociliary clearance in the lungs but also to the setting of regions of interest and to the interpretation and analysis of clearance curves over the regions of interest in the lungs. It is expected that this procedure offers an important means to the study of mucociliary clearance in health and disease in man.
NEMOTO, R., MORI, H., IWATA, K., KATO, T. and HARADA, M. A Model ofMalignant Urinary Bladder Tumor in Rabbits. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 257-263-We attempted to produce a malignant urinary bladder tumor in rabbits by transplanting tumor cells. Each of 51 male mixed-bred rabbits received 0.3ml V2 carcinoma cell suspension. The transplantation was done after laparotomy via injection into the bladder wall. Within 2 weeks malignant tumors were observed in the bladder. Without any manipulation to the mucosa, all of the tumors were led to exulceration into the bladder lumen. The incidence of malignant tumor reached 96 per cent. Metastases in these animals were seen in the lungs and para-aortic lymph nodes. This malignant tumor model seems especially suitable for the study of new methods of transurethral treatment of bladder cancer.
ISHIKAWA, K., KANAMASA, K., TASHI, M., YAMAKADO, T., HAYASHI, T. and KATORI, R. Coronary Artery Constriction by Oxygen Breathing inPatients with Coronary Disease. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 265-271 -This study was conducted to find whether or not oxygen breathing induces coronary vasoconstriction in diseased as well as in normal coronary arteries. Coronary angiograms were repeated in 14 patients with coronary artery disease during successive air and oxygen breathings and the diameters of the coronary arteries as displayed by film projection were measured and compared. Arterial oxygen tension was elevated from 91.3±16.8 to 457.2±26.5mmHg by oxygen breathing but was not accompanied by any significant changes in mean arterial pressure. The diameters of coronary arteries without significant narrowing were reduced from 2.89±1.05 to 2.65±1.02mm by oxygen breathing (a decrease of 8.9 ±7.0%) and that of coronary arteries distal to a narrowing of more than 50% was reduced from 2.24±0.53 to 2.02±0.57mm (a decrease of 10.1±10.7%). These findings suggest that oxygen breathing can constrict a large coronary artery even if it has atherosclerotic lesions and the myocardium needs more flow.
TONO-OKA, T., NAKAYAMA, M., OHKAWA, M., NAKAJIMA, T., TAKEDA, T. and MATSUMOTO, S. Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infection by Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) during Chemotherapy in Patients with ChildhoodAcute Leukemia. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 273-279-A combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was given orally to 13 children with acute leukemia on 16 occasions of hospitalization during remission induction chemotherapy for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. Frequency of episodes of persistent fever in this group of patients was markedly low, namely 0.38 per one hospitalization, whereas that in control group which was given no drug was 0.98. Furthermore, frequency of episodes of definite bacterial infection in the patients given SMX-TMP was 0.25 per one hospitalization. This was significantly low as compared with control patients whose frequency was 0.84. Although, there occurred slight rash and liver dysfunction as the side effects, they were reversible. These results suggest that the prophylactic use of SMX-TMP in children with acute leukemia during chemotherapy is effective and valuable for the protection from bacterial infection.
ITOH, C. Association of HLA with Humoral Immune Responses. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 281-288-The association of HLA with humoral immune responsiveness to various common antigens was studied. Increased frequencies of HLA-A2 in the higher cold agglutinin group and of B5 in the lower heterophil antibody group were observed. But these increases were not statistically significant. Although simple phenotype frequency of neither A9 nor B5 was associated with any group studied, the positive linkage disequilibrium for haplotype of A9-B5 was observed in the higher antibody titer groups of anti-streptolysin O, cold agglutinin and heterophil antibody and in the anti-HBs antigen negative group as well as in the general Japanese population. These results suggest that there may be humoral immune response and/or suppressive genes linked to the chromosomal area where the genes coding A9-B5 exist.
ABE, K. and SATO, T. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Japan: ClinicopathologicalFeatures of Twenty-Two Patients. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 289-293 -The clinicopathological features of 22 Japanese patients with Burkitt's lymphoma were reviewed. There were 14 males and 8 females with a mean age of 9.5 years. Jaw tumors dominated the clinical picture at the time of diagnosis with abdominal tumors second in frequency. The central nervous system and bone marrow were involved during the course of the disease in 32% of the patients. The anti-Epstein-Barr (EB) virus antibody titers in Japanese patients were comparable to those found in control group. Serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were lower in patients with localized disease than those with advanced tumor. The neoplastic cells were monoclonal B lymphocytes. The patients were very refractory to chemotherapy and had a poor prognosis with a mean survival of 3.8 months from diagnosis.
ISAGODA, A., NAKAMURA, R. and SAJIKI, N. Dependence of ReactionTime on Visual Fields in Patients with Unilateral Hemispheric Lesions. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 295-299-Reaction times (RTs) to light stimuli which appeared at central and lateral positions were measured in 13 normal subjects and 34 patients with unilateral lesions in the left or the right hemisphere. The normal subjects showed slowing of RTs to both lateral stimuli compared to the central stimulus, the extent of which was equal between the left and right hands. The patients with left hemispheric lesions had slower RTs to the stimulus contralaterally to the lesion than ipsilaterally and centrally. The patients with right hemispheric lesions had slower RTs both to the contralateral and central stimuli than to the ipsilateral. The results are discussed in relation to functional differentiation of the left and right hemispheres for visual processing.
TONO-OKA, T., NAKAYAMA, M., OHKAWA, M., TAKEDA, T. and MATSUMOTO, S. Impaired Leukocyte Mobility and Production of Monocyte-Derived GranulotacticFactor in Pediatric Malignant Disease during Chemotherapy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134(3), 301-310-Random mobility and chemotactic responses of granulocytes and monocytes, and production of monocyte-derived chemotactic factor for granulocytes (CFG) in the 17 patients with childhood malignant disease were estimated using an agarose plate method. Mononuclear cells (MNC) of the majority of the patients contained a significantly decreased number of monocytes with normal migratory capacity, whereas random mobility of granulocytes of all the patients was within normal range. Chemotactic responses of granulocytes and monocytes to zymosan activated serum (ZAS) were decreased in 11 to 17 occasions. All these impairments seemed to be induced by chemotherapeutic agents, because there were no differences in the degree of the impairment between group in remission with maintenance chemoterapy and that during induction chemotherapy.
SATO, T., ARIJI, F., TAKUSAGAWA, K., SHIDA, K., ASOO, N., KONNO, K. and SATO, H. Cytoplasmic Microtubules of Rat Ascites Hepatoma Cells. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 311-319-Cytoplasmic microtubules of 4 strains of rat ascites hepatoma cells including YS, AH 66F, AH 130 and AH 100B were investigated electron microscopically. Microtubules were clearly demonstrated when the cells were fixed at 20°C or 37°C and stained by tannic acid. Morphology, localization and volume density (AH 130>AH 66F>YS>AH 100B) of microtubules were examined comparatively in these 4 strains and correlation between microtubules and cell deformability was discussed.
YAJIMA, Y., HIRASAWA, T. and SAHEKI, T. Treatment of Adult-Type Citrullinemiawith Administration of Citrate. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 321-330 -A 48-year-old man who showed a regular diurnal fluctuation of blood ammonia level was diagnosed as adult-type citrullinemia with quantitative estimation of plasma amino acids and urea cycle enzymes in the liver. The restriction of daily protein intake less than 50g and oral administration of lactulose had no effect on the blood ammonia level. The efficacy of four amino acid solutions which had been used in order to improve the hepatic encephalopathy was compared each other in this case. Glutamate-arginine mixture had the same effect as glutamate solution in lowering the blood ammonia level, and glutamate was thought to be essential. Also, oral administration of citrate showed a remarkable effect almost comparable to intravenous administration of glutamate. Analysis of plasma amino acids 3hr after citrate administration demonstrated an increase in glutamate and a decrease in citrulline. These observations suggest that a metabolic pathway of citrate-α-ketoglutarate-glutamate-glutamine takes part in disposing free ammonia in the blood.
TOYOTA, T., KAI, Y., KAKIZAKI, M., OHTSUKA, H., SHIBATA, Y. and GOTO, Y. The Endocrine Pancreas in Pyridoxine Deficient Rats. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 331-336-Because the supplementation of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) improves the glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes and adult onset diabetes, pyridoxine deficiency has been considered to be one of the factors that cause diabetes mellitus. We produced pyridoxine deficient rats by giving pyridoxine-free food with deoxypridoxine which inhibits competitively the activity of pyridoxal phosphate. In these pyridoxine deficient rats plasma insulin during the glucose tolerance test was significantly low as compared with controls. In vitro experiments of pancreas perfusion showed that secretion of insulin and glucagon was impaired in the pyridoxine deficiency. Since the restriction of diet-calorie caused a decrease in arginine-induced secretion of insulin and glucagon from the isolated pancreas, the impairment of the endocrine pancreas may depend on malnutrition. Pyridoxine deficiency is surely one of the factors that impair the endocrine pancreas by multifactorial derangement of metabolism besides the tryptophan-nicotinic acid pathway.
SAITO, K. and KUMAGAI, K. The Suppressive Effect of Meperidine on PHA-Stimulated Transformation of Human Lymphocytes. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 134 (3), 337-338-The effect of meperidine on the response of human peripheral lymphocyte in culture to the stimulation by the mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, was studied by measuring the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA. The addition of meperidine at a high concentration (40-200μg/ml) resulted in significant decrease in response to mitogen, the inhibition being dose-dependent. Meperidine may influence immune responses by altering DNA synthesis in the lymphocytes.
TAKEMATSU, H., MARUYAMA, T., KATAOKA, S. and SEIJI, M. Establishmentof Pigmented Melanocyte Culture Strain from Harding-Passey Melanoma. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 134 (3), 339-340-A cultured cell strain of melanotic melanoma was established from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma. The established cells proliferated as a monolayer culture and actively produced melanin pigment. Under an electron microscope, these cells showed the typical characteristic features of the melanocyte. When a cell suspension was inoculated into Swiss mice, they developed typical melanocytic tumors which closely resembled the original melanomas.