The assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy was attempted by histometrical treatments of the muscle fibers of the right ventricle. Right ventricular hypertrophy was concluded, when the diameter of the muscle fibers of the right ventricle exceeded the upper rejection limit of that of the heart without increased right ventricular load. The sensitivity of the test was improved by using the ratio of the diameters of the muscle fibers of both the ventricles as a parameter. An increase of the myocardial cells was not found in right ventricular hypertrophy even in congenital heart failures.
This experiment was designed to study the kinetics of glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in cultured cells of human leukemia and lymphoma at 0°C and 37°C. Quantitative photographic measurement of changes of cell diameter was used as assay of relative permeability. Movement of DMSO was generally found to be more rapid than that of glycerol. Movement of both agents was found to be more rapid at 37°C than at 0°C. Changes in cell diameter was marked with glycerol than with DMSO. Equilibration time of DMSO, as assayed by change in cell diameter at 0°C was approximately 15 to 20 minutes as contrasted with 20-25 minutes for glycerol.
Three cases of thrombosis of the patent ductus arteriosus, complicated by embolism into the pulmonary or peripheral systemic circulation, are presented and discussed in conjunction with the 13 cases previously reported in the literature. In addition, a case of thrombosed varix of the ductus arteriosus, of partial thrombosis of the ductus, and of incomplete occlusion of the patent ductus containing thrombotic vegetation contiguous to bacterial endocarditis of the pulmonary artery are described.
1) Liver, plasma and bile lecithins of male Wistar rats were separated to subfractions of different degrees of unsaturation by AgNO3 Silica Gel-thin layer chromatography and their fatty acid compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography. 2) Specific activities of liver, plasma and bile lecithins and their subfractions were determined at various time periods from 10 to 240min following the intraportal injection of radioactive glycerol, choline and linoleic acid as precursors. Among subfractions, the highest values were found in either dienoic or monoenoic-dienoic subfractions of bile, plasma as well as liver lecithins. The values of bile lecithin or its subfractions were higher than those of liver or plasma lecithins or their subfractions respectively. 3) The turnover time of plasma lecithin was 66 or 55 min up to 120 min following the injection of glycerol or choline. The values of subfractions were 50, 48 and 37 min in monoenoic-dienoic, tetraenoic and hexaenoic ones, using choline as precursor. 4) The mean value of specific activity ratio (bile/liver) was 4.0 or 2.6 on total lecithin at time intervals from 0 to 120 min after the injection of glycerol or choline. The values with choline were 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 in three different subfractions, respectively. 5) The secretion rate constants of bile lecithin calculated from nonisotopic as well as isotopic data were in the range of 0.009 and 0.036. The values were 0.016-0.043, 0.004-0.010 and 0.006-0.014 in three subfractions, respectively. 6) The data suggested that the marked differences regarding molecular species of fatty acid composition between bile and liver lecithins could be ascribed to the preferential uptake of α-palmitoyl β-linoleoyl (or oleoyl) species by a bile forming site from a minor dynamic pool different from a major static pool of liver lecithin. While the plasma lecithin may be produced from the static pool but not directly from the dynamic pool.
1) Specific activities of lecithin and its subfractions with different degrees of unsaturation in liver, plasma and bile of fed male Wistar rats were determined at various time periods from 10 to 240min following the intraportal injection of (methyl-3H)-methionine, lysolecithin labeled with (2-3H)-glyceriol and/or (methyl-14C)-choline and lysophosphatidyl-ethanolamine labeled with (2-3H)-glycerol. Among subfractions, the highest values were found in hexaenoic or tetraenoic or both subfractions with three respective precursors. 2) The mean value of specific activity ratio (bile/liver) was 1.36 or 0.94 on total lecithin in respect of radioactive methionine or lysolecithin. The values with methionine were 2.3, 1.5 and 2.0 in mono-dienoic, tetraenoic and hexaenoic subfractions, respectively. The secretion rate constant of bile lecithin calculated from isotopic data was 0.012 or 0.009 with methionine or lysolecithin. The highest values (0.037 and 0.021) were found in mono-dienoic subfractions among three different subfractions. 3) The turnover time of plasma lecithin was 70 or 125min with methionine or lysolecithin. 4) Certain aspects regarding liver lecithin metabolism as well as the secretion mechanism of bile and plasma lecithins were discussed using the data reported by other investigators as well as our previous and present data. 5) It seems to be quite probable that the marked differences on molecular species between bile and liver lecithins could be ascribed to the preferential uptake of α-palmitoyl-β-oligoenoyl species by a bile forming site from a minor dynamic pool which contained rather higher proportions of polyenoic species. This pool could not be regarded to be a particular fixed compartment but a variable dynamic one presumed to be mainly composed of lecithin being carried by a specific lecithin transport protein. In contrast, plasma lecithin, in which the secretion rate or turnover rate did not show marked differences among molecular species, may be brought about from a major static lecithin pool comprised mainly of membrane systems but not directly from the minor dynamic pool. The data also suggested that interconversion between molecular species might proceed at a fairly rapid rate and the rate could be different for different species.
Fifteen out of twenty patients with natural mumps have developed a rise of mumps virus neutralizing antibody in saliva. Except several cases, the time when the salivary neutralizing antibody titer reached the maximum, almost coincided with convalescence of parotitis. The main class of immunoglobulin showing neutralizing activity was IgA. It is suggested that this IgA antibody is produced in salivary glands, and have an important role in suppression of mumps virus proliferation in salivary glands and in preventing the excretion of the virus into saliva.
Adrenocortical activity in the dog was studied during the first 4 hours after X-irradiation of the adrenal with doses of 200-2, 000 R. Under anesthetized conditions, the secretory activity was determined by measuring 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in the adrenal venous blood. The adrenocortical activity was found to be stimulated by localized X-irradiation of 800-2, 000 R to the adrenal, the response being roughly proportional to the dose. However, with hypophysectomized dogs, the adrenocortical secretory response to X-irradiation of the adrenal was entirely absent, probably as a result of hypophysectomy. These results suggest that the X-irradiation doses of 800-2, 000 R in the present study, if delivered directly to the adrenal, produce an augmentation in the corticoid secretory activity and its action occurs through the pituitary-adrenocortical mechanism.
Erection and ejaculation were caused in male mongrel dogs by manual stimulation of the penis and the pressure changes in the posterior urethra during this stimulation were recorded. As a result, it was noted that the pressure changes in the posterior urethra from the onset of the stimulation to the end of ejaculation were identical to those seen in the posterior urethrogram reported in the previous paper, and that rhythmic alterations in the posterior urethrogram coincided with the pressure change in the posterior urethra during actual ejaculation.
Glycopeptides have been systematically classified based on the carbohydrate-peptide linkages and on the structure of carbohydrate units, and the hypotheses have been proposed regarding the evolution of these glycopeptides. Of seven types of carbohydrate-peptide linkages so far established, only glucosaminylasparagine linkage evolved in the proto-eukaryote, common ancestor of all eukaryotes, whereas the remaining six types of linkages, which are all 0-glycosidic bonds to hydroxyamino acids, evolved when or after the protoeukaryotes diverged into three kingdoms, i.e., fungi, plants, and animals. This kingdom specificity of glycoproteins reflects the fact that eukaryotic kingdoms differ mainly in the intercellular matrix, the principal components of which are glycoproteins, rather than in the intracellular substances. It is suggested (i) that glycoproteins arose mainly concomitant with multicellular organisms, (ii) that the inventions of certain glycoproteins were the decisive events in evolutionary diversification, and (iii) that glycoproteins were essential for the development of tissues and organs, but not essential for the primitive life. To date no definitive proof has been provided for the presence of glycoproteins in prokaryotes.