Cultured ascites hepatoma cells of the rat were treated with 400 to 900 R of gamma rays or 25 to 100μg/ml of bleomycin for 30 min. The cells were followed up for 133 hr and the pedigrees were analyzed. Gamma rays and 2 low doses of bleomycin gave rise to typical reproductive death in generations 1 and 2 but 100μg of the drug produced frequent interphase death. Natural death and induced death did not follow statistical randomness suggesting an existence of weak and sensitive clones in a population.
Eleven organs of the rat were studied 1 hr and 24 hr after the intravenous administration of 67CuCl2 and 67Cu-eeruloplasmin. The rats were normal, copper-deficient, or copper-laden. The amounts of stable copper and 67Cu in the whole organ and supernatant fractions, corrected for whole blood copper and 67Cu, were measured. The distribution of supernatant 67Cu was determined in three Sephadex G-100 chromatographic zones: Peak I (150, 000 daltons), Peak II (31, 000 daltons), and Peak III (11, 000 daltons). All organs took up 67Cu from both sources, but there was a tendency for increased uptakes in copper-deficient rats and decreased uptake in copper-laden rats. Only lung, heart, and testis took up more 67Cu from 67Cu-ceruloplasmin than from 87CuCl2. Supernatant 67Cu tended to be in Peak I when the source was 67Cu-ceruloplasmin and in Peak 11 when the source was 67CuCl2.. When 67Cu-ceruloplasmin was added to supernatant fractions in vitro, the 67Cu was in Peak I. However, when 67Cu Cl2 was added to supernatant frac-tions, Peak III predominated in kidney, brain, testis, and liver; Peak II pre-dominated in none; and Peak I predominated in spleen, muscle, large and small bowel, stomach, lung, and heart. A high-molecular-weight copperbinding substance seems to be present in organ supernatant fractions.
Mean red cell life-span in normal subjects and in patients with various hematological disorders was examined with 51Cr and DF32P. The results with 51Cr were corrected for 51Cr elution using correction factors. The results by the two methods agreed fairly well with each other, Elution rate in various hematological disorders was 2. 3% per day or less except for the patients with extra corpuscular hemolytic agents such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia or congestive splenomegaly. It is concluded that estimates of mean red cell life-span by corrected 51Cr method are more useful and sufficient than uncorrected 51Cr or DF32P method in general hematological disorders.
A microassay technique for the detection of cell-mediated immunity to measles virus is described. Lymphocytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined employing the percent reduction of target cells surviving on the microtissue culture plate. Simultaneously, subpopulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was also measured. Significant measles specific cytotoxicity was only demonstrated in the subjects with prior histories of measles but no reactivity was observed in the children without the history. Cell-mediated immunity appeared slightly earlier than the elevation of hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer. Both reactivities progressively increas-ed and exhibited the maximal responses at the reconvaleseent period of 2nd to 3rd week after skin rash. Depletion of T lymphocyte was most prominent at the stage of Kopliks enanthema or the early stage of exanthema.
The present study attempted to elucidate stimulatory factor(s) in the rat hypothalamus which controls prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary. Rat serum prolactin was elevated so much in late pregnancy that we prepared the hypothalamic extract of late pregnant rats. Prolaetin levels in serum and pituitary were determined by radioimmunoassay. After injection of this extract into a lactating rat 43-60 hr after delivery, the serum prolactin level was elevated significantly one to four hr later and the pitui-tary prolactin level declined two hr later. On the other hand, the hypothalamic extract of normal female rats prepared in a similar manner inhibited prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary in the lactating rat as described by other authors. These data indicate that the prolactin releasing factor may consist in the hypothalamus of late pregnant rat, and be predominant over the prolactin inhibiting factor during late pregnancy. Prolactin secretion was also investigated in lactating and non-lactating puerperium rats. Prolactin in serum and pituitary declined with days after delivery in non-lactating rats, but not in lactating rats. The presumed factor for such prolactin release in lactating rats is considered to be the prolactin releasing factor.
Induction of δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase by allylisopropylacetamide in organ-cultured chick embryo liver was not appreciably influenced by any of cyclic AMP, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, theophylline, glucose, insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, isoproterenol, and hydrocortisone, whereas the activity of tyrosine aminotrans-ferase significantly increased in response to cyclic AMP and some of those hormones. Accumulation of δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in the cultured liver cytosol fraction was not appreciably increased by the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP or insulin to the incubation medium. Apparently the behaviors of the induction of δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in chick embryo liver in ovo and in vitro differ from those in the livers of adult chicken and rat. High concentrations of chloramphenicol suppressed significantly the allylisopropylacetamide-induced in-crease of 1-aminolevulinic acid synthetase as well as incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins. The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase, however, was rather increased when relatively low concentrations of chloramphenicol were added to the medium.
The effects of ligation of the vas deferens, the corpus epididymidis and the vasa efferentia on the testicular function were studied in sexually mature rats. The significant decrease in the testicular weight was observed after ligation of the corpus epididymidis and the vasa efferentia. However, neither the weight of the ventral prostate and of the seminal vesicle, nor the plasma testosterone level showed significant changes. The results suggest that the ligation at the three locations would nott affect the endocrine function of the testis. The changes in the testis would mainly affect the spermatogenesis. The effects of sperm stasis on the testicular function were also discussed.
In 8 healthy subjects (group A) and 4 subjects with respiratory symptoms (group B), the lung pressure-volume curve (P-V curve), maximum expiratory flow-volume curve (MEFVC) and respiratory resistance (Rrs) at all vital capacities were measured. To avoid laryngeal artifact on a mouth pressure, an intratracheal catheter was used for measurement of Rrs which was obtained with 3 cycles/sec oscillatory forced pressure. Group B did not show a different elastic recoil from group A. In comparison of the maximum expiratory flow (Vmax) at 80, 70, 60 and 50% of the total lung capacity (TLC), Vmax of group B showed lower values than that of group A. Rrs was almost the same in both groups from 70%TLC upwards, but Rrs of group B was higher than that of group A from 65%TLC downwards. Since the lung elastic recoil pressures (Pat (1) ) in the two groups were not different and Rrs's were different significantly only at low lung volumes, the decrease in Vmax of group B was supposed to be due to the increased Rrs which might reflect small airway obstruction.
A patient with multiple myeloma who has an IgG-IM-component in serum reacting with both κ and λ light chains in im-munoelectrophoresis is presented. The possibility of ‘hybrid molecule (H2LκL λ)’ is strongly suspected. The absorption studies of the patient's serum employing Anti-κ and anti-A light chains, however, support the view that this apparently single M-component consists of two M-components, IgG 1-κ and IgG 1- λ. The reason why these two M-components possessed the identical electrophoretic mobility is unclear. The possibility is high that these two M-components are produced in the same cell.
A precise and highly reproducible method for analyzing the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes with a minute amount of blood (less than 10 μl) is described. The osmotic fragility curves are recorded with a coil planet centrifuge with accessories and a scanning photodensitometer. The recorded curves are transcribed by a DuPont Curve Resolver and their components are analyzed. Normal fragility curves obtained from healthy adults revealed slightly skewed Gaussian curves and they were resolved into several typical Gaussian components which differed according to the physical and clinical conditions of subjects. Each resolved component is supposed to correspond to the population of erythrocytes having a nearly identical osmotic fragility. The method is proved to be useful for the detection of altered membrane properties of erythrocytes in various diseases.
The oral glucose tolerance test and arginine infusion test were carried out on 22 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 11 normal control subjects. According to the glucose tolerance curve, the patients were divided into three groups; group I (normal or slightly impaired), group II (mildly diabetic) and group III (moderately diabetic). Markedly impaired insulin responses to oral glucose as well as to arginine infusion were observed in groups II and III. In group I, the mean plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test were the same as those in the controls, but the insulin response to arginine was reduced except in two cases. On the other hand, the glucagon levels during arginine infusion test were within the normal range in group I and slightly reduced in the other groups with diabetic glucose tolerance. The ratio of increment area of insulin to that of glucagon during arginine infusion in the patients was slightly decreased in comparison with the controls. Neither insulin nor glucagon response after arginine infusion showed a significant correlation with pancreatic exocrine function. It is concluded that in chronic pancreatitis insulin response to glucose as well as to arginine is markedly decreased, and that glucagon rise after arginine infusion is lowered com-pared with the controls.
The effects of histamine on isotropic and chrono-tropic activity were investigated in isolated canine atrium preparations which were suspended in a bath and perfused with arterial blood from a carotid artery of heparinized support dog. Histamine administered into the cannulated sinus node artery in a dose range of 0.3-100 μg produced dose-related positive chronotropic and inotropic effects. The positive responses to histamine were not suppressed by treatment with propranolol in doses which blocked responses to norepinephrine, but these were significantly suppressed by a histamine H1, receptor blocking agent, tripelennamine. On the other hand, these histamine-induced effects were not modified by a histamine H2 receptor blocking agent, burimamide. From these results, it is assumed that positive chronotropic and inotropic effect of histamine may be mediated by histamine H1 receptors in the dog heart.