TAYLOR, P.G., SOYANO, A., ROMANO, E. and LAYRISSE, M. Physiological and Non-Physiological Forms of Iron Affect Differently Proliferation and Ferritin Synthesis in Human Mononuclear Cells In Vitro. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 285-293 - The effect of iron in different forms on the proliferative responseto mitogen and ferritin content of human mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) was studied in vitro. Iron-loaded transferrin (FeTF) but not apotransferrin (apoTF) significantly enhanced the mitogenic response of MNL in serum-free culture. Removal of TF from serum markedly reduced its effectiveness as a serum supplement. This effect could be almost totally reversed when the serum was reconstituted with both iron and apoTF. Four forms of iron showed a stimulatory effect on ferritin synthesis in MNL in the increasing order: FeTF< iron nitrilotriacetate<iron citrate (molar ratio 1: 20)< iron citrate (1:1). The effect appeared to be correlated with their susceptibility to polymerization in aqueous solution. It is proposed that iron may a) enhance the mitogenic response of MNL, due probably to the physiological form of iron, FeTF, and b) stimulate ferritin synthesis, a protective reaction of the cell to toxic polymerized forms of the metal.
TAKAHASHI, H., TAKIZAWA, S., HANANO, M., TATEWAKI, W., NAGASAKI, Y., SASAGAWA, Y. and SHIBATA, A. Evaluation of Fibrinolytic Therapy by MeasuringCross-Linked Fibrin Derivatives and Plasmin-α2-Plasmin Inhibitor Complex inPlasma. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 295-302 - Plasma levels of α2-plasmin inhibitor (α2PI), plasmin-α2PI complex and cross-linked fibrin derivatives (XDP) were measured in 8 patients (12 episodes) with thromboembolic disorders on the initial administration of urokinase. In conjunction with a decrease in plasma α2PI activity and antigen, plasmin-α2PI complex increased following urokinase infusion in all cases except one who received a low dose (60, 000 units) of urokinase. However, changes in XDP were variable among the patients. Plasma XDP level increased markedly in one, moderately in 4, slightly in one, and remained unchanged in 6 cases (episodes). The increment of plasma XDP correlated (r=0.804, p=0.003) with the dose of urokinase administered, but was independent of changes in plasmin-α2PI complex. The plasma XDP elevation was associated with clinical improvement. These results suggest that simultaneous measurements of XDP and plasmin-α2PI complex in plasma would be valuable for the pharmacological or hemostatic assessment of thrombolytic therapy.
KUBOTA, K., MATSUZAWA, T., FUJIWARA, T., YAMAGUCHI, T., ITO, K., WATANABE, H. and ONO, S. Age-Related Brain Atrophy Enhanced by Smoking: A Quantitative Study with Computed Tomography. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 303-311 - We examined the chronic effect of smoking on brain atrophy quantitatively with computed tomography (CT). Study was performed on 159 smokers and 194 non-smokers from 40 to 69 years old with neither neurological nor focal abnormality in brain CT. Brain atrophy index (BAI) which was a quantitative marker of brain atrophy reported previously, was calculated from each pixel of brain CT. There was a significant age dependent increase of BAI in both non-smokers and smokers. Smokers showed a significant increase in BAI (atrophic) compared to non-smokers in three age groups, 50-54, 55-59 (p<0.01, both) and 65-69 (p<0.05). In the male, the mean BAI became high when the smoking index increased (p<0.01). The systolic blood pressure and serum triglycerides of smokers were significantly higher than the non-smokers (p<0.05 and p<0.01). It was suggested that age-related brain atrophy was increased by chronic smoking through advanced atherosclerosis.
RIKITOMI, N., NAGATAKE, T., MATSUMOTO, K., WATANABE, K. and MBAKI, N. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Due to Non-Diphtheria Corynebacteria in 8Patients with Underlying Lung Diseases. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 313-325 - Non-Diphtheria corynebacteria had been considered a commensal habitant of the human skin and mucous membrane. There are few reports of pulmonary infections due to Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum or other non-diphtheria corynebacteria occurring in immunocompetent patients. From 1978 to 1986, 8 patients with lower respiratory tract infections with Corynebacterium sp. was observed. In 6 of 8 instances the causative microorganism was C. pseudodiph theriticum. The above 8 patients had underlying pulmonary disea sesbut were not associated with immunosuppressive state, except one. Seven of them recovered from the infection in response to antimicrobial therapy. All 6 isolates of C. pseudodiphtheriticum were sensitive to nine antimicrobial agents which were six β-lactam agents, gentamicin, minocycline and norfloxacin.
SATO, T. and YOSHINAGA, K. Sclerosis of the Renal Artery and Hyalinizationof the Renal Glomeruli in Diabetics. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 327-330 - Branches of the renal artery were macroscopically isolated from autopsy kidneys and separated into four portions; the trunk outside the kidney (a. renal-O), the large subbranches inside the kidney (a. renal-I), aa. interlobares, and aa. arcuatae and interlobulares. Sclerosis was more prominent in the diabetics than in the nondiabetics in all of the four portions of the renal artery, especially in the smaller branches. Sclerosis was prominent even in the diabetics with glomeruli showing minimal histological changes. There was statistically significant correlation between the degree of glomerular hyalinization and sclerosis of aa. interlobares and aa. arcuatae and interlobulares. Statistically significant positive correlation was also observed with respect to the grade of sclerosis between any two of the four portions of the renal artery. These results suggest that arteriosclerosis of the renal artery is already prominent before the glomerular changes appear and further advances in parallel with glomerular hyalinization, especially in smaller branches.
TAKADA, G., GOTO, A., KOMATSU, K. and GOTO, R. Carnitine Deficiency inLysinuric Protein Intolerance: Lysine-Sparing Effect of Carnitine. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 331-334 - Plasma carnitine deficiency (41% of normal control) was found in a 9 year-old boy with lysinuric protein intolerance. Following oral carnitine administration, the plasma level of lysine as well as carnitine has significantly increased (p<0.05). His well-being seemed to have improved on this substitutive remedy. Hitherto unrevealed these findings on LPI indicate that carnitine has a lysine-sparing effect and suggest that there might be a biosynthetic pathway of carnitine directly from free lysine in human.
KATAOKA, S., YAMAMOTO, T.Y. and YUI, R. Serotonergic Efferent NerveFibers of the Retinal Plexiform Layer of the Abalone. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 335-346 - Serotonin (5-HT)-immunohistochemistries at light- and electron-microscopic levels, using rabbit anti-5-HT serum (#1234), were applied to the whole head and only to the eye of the abalone, respectively. Peroxidase-antiperoxidase and fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were used for the light-microscopic immunohistochemistries. Many immunoreactive nerve fibers were demonstrated in the outer zone of the retinal plexiform layer, small optic nerve fiber bundles, the optic nerve trunk and the cerebral ganglion. Immunoreactive somata were observed only in the cerebral ganglion. Accordingly the immunoreactive fibers in the retinal plexiform layer are considered to be efferent. Cored vesicles in the retinal plexiform layer demonstrated by both conventional chemofixation and a rapid-freeze-substitution method showed strong immunoreactivities localized within their limiting membrane. The same fibers also contained small clear vesicles. They are considered to be different from larger clear vesicles in non-immunoreactive fibers reportedly containing acetylcholine. The function of the efferent fibers remains to be elucidated.
OTOKIDA, K., OHIRA, A., KAMIMURA, A., FUJIMORI, M., KATO, M., TAKAHASHI, A., SAIKI, I., KANAYA, H., TASHIRO, A. and ABE, T. Cervical Cathecolamine-Secreting Paraganglioma in the Pterygopalatine Fossa. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 347-354 - A 25-year-old man was admitted for examination to determine the cause of hypertension. High levels of noradrenaline in plasma and urine were seen, suggesting that the patient had an adrenal or extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. However, whole-body scintigraphy using the isotope of [131I] metaiodo-benzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) failed to find the presence of a cathecolamine-secreting tumor. The highest level of noradrenaline was detected in plasma obtained from the left jugular vein after selective venous collections through femoral catheterization. Both the computed tomography and cerebral ngiography showed a hen-egg-sized tumor located in the left pterygopalatine. After surgical removal of the tumor, high blood pressure and the levels of noradrenaline in plasma and urine were significantly decreased. Histopathological diagnosis was paraganglioma (cathecolamine-secreting paraganglioma). The patient with cervical cathecolamine-secreting paraganglioma is the first case where the tumor was isolatively located in the pterygopalatine fossa.
TAKASE, S., OKITA, N., SAKUMA, H., MOCHIZUKI, H., OHARA, Y., MIZUNO, Y., SATO, T. and HANEW, K. Endocrinological Abnormalities in Myotonic Dystrophy: Consecutive Studies of Eight Tolerance Tests in 26 Patients. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 355-374 - We studied endocrine functions of the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, gonad, adrenal and pancreas in 26 patients with myotonic dystrophy. The following findings were obtained: (1) Hyporesponsivenesses of HGH to insulin, arginine and L-dopa test were observed in 25%, 45% and 54.5% of patients, respectively. To the administration of sulpiride and TRH, hypo- or hyperresponses of plasma PRL were observed in 4 or 2 patients, respectively. (2) Depressed plasma levels of testosterone were observed in 4 patients and those of estradiol were observed in 3 patients. Among these 7 patients, five were hypergonadotropic and the remaining two were hypogonadotropic. From the data of plasma cortisol and urinary 17-OHCS, the adrenal functions in patients wth myotonic dystrophy were considered to be normal. The renin-angiotensine- aldosterone systems in these patients were considered to be grossly normal. (3) Basal levels of T3, T4 and free T4 were within the normal ranges, but 6 of 19 patients showed low levels of 131I-uptake and 11 of 24 patients showed reduced BMR values. (4) The basal level of plasma insulin was elevated in 5 patients. Insulin responses to oral glucose were exaggerated and delayed in 21 of 26 patients. From these results and the statistical evaluation of each laboratory and clinical data, we concluded that 1) the degrees of disturbances of endocrine functions ar eat random in each patient. 2) The measures of intellectual function obtained by WAIS were directly correlated with basal levels of TSH, but inversely with basal levels of somatostatin. No specific correlation was found between endocrinological disturbances and neurological seventies. 3) Impairment of some endocrine functions, such as the gonadal, thyroid and somatotroph functions, was closely correlated with age and the duration of disease.
OHGAWARA, H., IWANAGA, T., YUI, R., NISHIJIMA, S. and HIRATA, Y. Monolayer-Forming Islet Cell Culture from Neonatal Pig Pancreas: UsingSequential Treatment with EDTA-Dispase and Monoiodoacetic Acid for Preparationand Purification. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 375-382 - A new method for the preparation and purification of a monolayer-forming islet cell culture from the neonatal pig pancreas is described. Single cell preparations of the pig pancreas were obtained by gently stirring the chopped pancreases in a medium containing sequential EDTA-dispase. Exposure of the cells to monoiodoacetic acid (10μm) and BSA-gradient resulted in improved preparation, highly enriched in the endocrine cells. The cells were maintained in tissue culture medium 199 containing 5.5mM D-glucose, with or without 0.1mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, or 16.7mM D-glucose and 20% fetal calf serum. During a 6-day culture period, many small cell aggregates appeared in the media. The cell clusters attached to the bottom of the dish and formed monolayers. Provocative stimulation and radioimmuno assay for insulin showed the existence of numerous and viable B cells in the cell clusters. The other three types of islet cells were also demonstrated immunohistochemically in the cell cluster. It is concluded that this improved culsture technique provides a useful tool for morphological and biochemical studies of islet cells and a potential source of material for transplantation of B-cells from the pancreas.
KUMAGAI, R., TOKIWA, K., NAKAYASHIKI, N. and KATSURA, S. Glutamate-Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) Variant Found in a Disputed Paternity Case. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 383-388 - GPT variants, GPT2C-1 and GPT2A-2C, were found in samples from a mother and her child, respectively, in a disputed paternity case. The phenotype GPT 2C-1 was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed at alkaline pH and acidic pH; this is probably the first GPT2C-1 detected in Japanese. It was considered that the GPT*2C allele in this family was inherited in a manner of autosomal codominant transmission.
SOU, S., TAKABAYASHI, T., SASAKI, H., SASAMOTO, K., SHINTAKU, Y., LI, Z.-J., OZAWA, N. and YAJIMA, A. Prenatal Diagnosis of Partial Trisomy 22 Derivedfrom a Maternal t(11; 22) (q23; q11). Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 389-393 - A fetus with partial trisomy 22 was detected by amniocentesis in a pregnant woman with balanced translocation, 46, XX, t(11; 22) (q23; q11). The aborted fetus had multiple congenital anomalies consisting of microcephaly, cleft lip and palate. The extra acrocentric chromosome was identified as der (22), t(11; 22)(q23; q11). The aborted fetus is compared with other trisomic cases described in literatures, and perinatal diagnosis of this case was discussed.
TERASAKI, T., KOJIMA, M., KITAMORI, T., YURI, K., AZUMA, Y., KANEKO, H. and WATANABE, H. A Continuous Sampling Model of the Seminal Vesicle Fluidin Rat. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 395-396 - A continuous sampling model of the fluid excreted from the unilateral seminal vesicle was devised in the rat. Each 12hr change in the volume was measured in 14 sexually mature male rats by use of tubing. If we assume the excretion of a small volume (less than 4 μl) as the resting level, 3 of 14 rats showed only the resting level. The excretion of a large volume was sometimes observed in the 11 other rats both in daytime and nighttime. This model would be promising for investigations of the seminal vesicles from new aspects.
MIKI, H., HIDA, W., SHINDOH, C., TAGUCHI, O., INOUE, H. and TAKISHIMA, T. Effect of Electrical Stimulation of Genioglossus Muscle on Upper Airway Resistancein Anesthetized Dogs. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 153 (4), 397-398 - The isolated upper airway pressure and flow changes during electrical stimulation of the genioglossus muscle in spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs were measured at given pressures in the inspiratory direction. Upper airway resistance was maximal during no stimulation and decreased rapidly with stimulation at frequencies up to about 40Hz.