The changes in the intraesophageal, intragastric, and intraduodenal temperatures of healthy adults after drinking 15 and 50°C water were studied and the following facts were confirmed. I. The intraesophageal temperature: 1. The maximum change appears during and immediately after drinking, and is always greater than that in the intragastric temperature. 2. The recovery to the temperature before drinking is faster than that of the intragastric temperature. 3. The curve of the change exhibits a straight line on the logarithmic scale, and represents a power function. II. The intragastric temperature: 1. The results reported previously1) are substantiated. 2. The upper and lower parts of the stomach behave equally in the changes. III. The intraduodenal temperature: 1. The curve of the change shows a zigzag line. 2. The maximum change appears between 30 seconds and eight minutes after the drinking, and is usually smaller than those of intraesophageal and intragastric temperatures. 3. The change never exceeds that of the intragastric temperature. 4. The individual variation in the change is greater than those in the intraesophageal and intragastric temperatures. 5. The curve of recovery does not represent any simple mathematical function. 6. It changes more physiologically than physically contrary to the other two temperatures which behave more physically.
1. Livers form persons belonging to Group B were fractioned to isolate the Group B lipid by a procedure different from the one which had been previously applied in this Institute. 2. Of the preparations, one was Group B active, though weak, but the others obtained in a similar manner were group-inactive. One of the latter was compared chemically and physically with the former. i) They both showed a single boundary after electrophoresis as well as after ultracentrifugation. ii) They both contained chondrosamine, galactose, glucose, a fatty acid or acids, ethanolamine, glycine, serine, aspartic and glutamic acid and glycerophosphoric acid. iii) They analyzed similar on several constituents. Thus they showed no difference from each other in chemical respects so far as examined, and resembled the preparation of Masamune et al. of Group A lipid from the same source as well, suggesting the homogeneity of the electrophoretically pure preparations of group lipids not only from human liver but also from other tissues. iv) The two preparations, however, differed from each other regarding axial ratio of molecule and molecular weight. 3. Group B potency was scarcely elevated or lost during preparation of the group lipid, nevertheless, the products showed no Group A nor O activity, that is, no group conversion was recognized contrary to the case of group lipids from hog and human lungs. The mechanism involved is discussed, resting on the view of Masamune on group interconversion in vitro. Through the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches, the Ministry of Education gave a grant in aid to us. H. Masamune.
1. An electrophoretical sedimentaion apparatus was devised for preparative Urinary Group A, B and O Substances-II fractionation. 2. Blood group glucidamins A, B and O, which were essentially homogeneous electrophoretically, were isolated from human urine by the electrophoretical sedimentation method, and investigated chemically and physically. 3. The A, B and O preparations pretty resembled one another in chemical composition, but differed in glucosamine/galactosamine ratio, and L-fucose-, sialic acid-, histidine- and arginine-content. 4. The gap areas in retention analysis differed from one group sub-stance to another in accord with the various hexone bases contents. 5. The substances taken up in veronal buffer of pH 8.6 disagreed with one another with respect to the boundary mobility in electrophoresis. 6. The significance of the discrepancies in composition is discussed in reference to variance of blood group activity. Through the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches the Ministry of Education gave a grant in aid to us, which is gratefully acknowledged. H. Masamune.
1. The author has ascertained that the tissues, especially the skin, in the neighborhood of the foci in osteoarthritic tuberculosis cases are in a state of localized tuberculous allergy specifically different from that in tissues distant from the foci, and the significance of the Focal Tuberculin Reaction (FTR) was discussed. 2. The intracutaneous tuberculin reaction test applied in the skin over a focus of osteoarthritic tuberculosis resulted in a reaction much different in degree from that on the healthy area, and this difference was found to change parallelly with the progress or the stages of the disease. Thus, a test for this difference of FTR is deemed clinically serviceable in differential and prognostic diagnosis. In non-tuberculous orthopedic diseases such a difference of FTR was scarcely observable, except in rheumatic cases. 3. As to the nature of such a difference in FTR, the author's opinion is that it represents a difference in the strength of the reaction owing to a difference in ratio of the antigen to the antibodies in and around the focus. Another factor, a difference in susceptibility of the tissues to the reaction was also considered, but this was found insignificant, both clinically and experimentally. 4. From the above results, we are justified in concluding that FTR is a specific manifestation of the antigen-antibody reaction in the focus of osteo-arthritic tuberculosis.
1. The capillary permeabilities for fluid, protein and its fractions in plasma were estimated in 41 hypertensive patients including essential hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis and nephropathia gravidarum together with 13 normal adults, under the congestion brought about, according to Landis's method, with pressure of 60 or 80mm. Hg for 15 or 30min. 2. The fluid and protein losses through the capillary wall during the congestion in benign or intermediate hypertension were in general similar to normal. Neither fluid nor protein losses were augmented in malign hypertension and hypertensive nephropathia gravidarum, con-trary to hypertensive chronic glomerulonephritis with also similarly de-creased hemoglobin content of the blood, in which increased fluid and protein losses could be confirmed. 3. It could not be ascertained any correlation between fluid or protein losses and edema, electrocardiographic change, plasma protein content or systolic and diastolic blood pressure. 4. A correlation existed between fluid loss and protein loss above the range of about 10cc. per 100cc. blood in fluid loss. 5. In the cases showing protein loss above 0.2g. per 100cc. blood the ratios of protein fractions in capillary filtrate were almost the same with that in plsma before stasis. Below 0.2g. chifly albumin was transferred to the tissue. These changes did not differ between the type or stage in hypertension, and depended on the intensity of protein loss. Part of this paper was presented at the 19th annual meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society at Kyoto, April 1955. The expense of this study was in part defrayed by Grants in Aid for Fundamental Scientific Research and also, by that for Medical Research, Welfare Ministry.