Acetoacetate was administered to the rats fed with either the standard diet or the high-protein high-fat diet during eight weeks. Acetoacetate influences on the anterior pituitary lobe and the adrenal glands including the adrenal medulla and causes hyperfunction in the animals especially fed with the high-protein high-fat diet. It is suggested that the anterior pituitary and adrenal system plays an important role in the progress of the disordered carbohydrate metabolism induced by the administration of acetoacetate and that it might cause a steroid diabetes.
Two hundred and thirty-six gallstones from 227 cases in the Sendai district, taken surgically in Muto's surgical clinic during 1941 and 1958 were analysed chemically with the following conclusion. 1). The kinds of gallstones were as follows ; pure cholesterol stones three, cholesterol-pigment-chalk stones 95, combined stones 17, pigment-chalk stones 104, parasite stones 10 and inorganic stones seven. Cholesterol stones and pigment stones were approximately the same in number. 2). Gallstones in the gallbladder included cholesterol stones in 56.2 per cent, and were more common than the pigment stones which gave 39.6 per cent. Gallsntoes in the common bile duct included cholesterol stones in 29.9 per cent, and this as far less than the pigment stones which showed 70.1 per cent. 3). The sex distribution was 111 cases in the male and 116 cases in the female showing on equal frequency in both sexes. The ratio of cholesterol stones to pigment stones was 1.0 to 1.18 in the male and 1.31 to 1.0 in the female. 4). Age on admission; In the sixth decade the incidence of cholelithiasis was the highest, then the fifth and the seventh decade followed in frequency. Cholesterol stones were more common than pigment stones in the fourth decade, and pigment stones were more than cholesterol stones in the eighth decade. 5). Distribution according to profession revealed a higher incidence of cholesterol stones in the sedentary group and of pigment stones in the workers group. Cholesterol stones were more common in the city inhabitants group, and pigment stones were more frequent in the farm and fishing village inhabitants group. Also cholesterol stones were seen more frequently in the first and second class patients group, and pigment stones were more common in the third class patients group. 6). Pigment stones had been frequently observed during the period of the poor food condition during the war and post-war time, but with the improvement of the social conditions, cholesterol stones increased gradually, attaining 60 per cent of the total cases in the last two years. The incidence of cholelithiasis itself much increased since 1953 and the tendency to increase still continues at present. 7). From the fact that the higher incidence of cholesterol stones in large cities and that in the Sendai district cholesterol stones increased in number with the recent improvement of food condition, it seems to be reasonable to assume that the characteristic feature of the predominance of pigment stones in Japan is gradually diminishing and the kinds of gallstones resemble that of Europe and the United States.
1. In consideration of the important part played by the RES in dealing with inflammatory foci, an attempt was made in finding a method of quantitatively evaluating the defense reaction of this system. The authors succeeded in demonstrating the possibility of evaluating the intensity of the reaction by cytological examination at stated intervals of the infantilization of the RES cells, their numerical increase and the number of detected round histiocytes appearing in the inflammatory foci against foreign bodies induced by insertion of slideglasses beneath the back skin of rabbits, and that the actual state of the cytological reaction is reflected on the surface of the inserted glass pieces. 2. It is herewith proposed that for evaluating the defense capacity of the RES by this method, the count of the mononuclear cells on the glass on the second day and the comparative observation of the number of giant cells detected on the glass surface on the second and the third days after the insertion of glass give serviceable criteria. 3. A general parallelism was observed between the findings on the subcutaneous histiocytes before and their extent of proliferation after the glass insertion.
Cholesterol content was highest in albumin and α-globulin in chicks on commercial mash diet containing 5% cottonseed oil. When serum cholesterol level is raised by cholesterol feeding, cholesterol accumulates at first in β1-globulin and then α2-globulin. In chicks on regular mash diet to which 5% cottonseed oil was added and in cholesterol-fed chicks, the ratio of β-lipoprotein to α-lipoprotein determined by paper electrophoresis does not reflect exactly the ratio of β-lipoprotein cholesterol to α-lipoprotein cholesterol, because not only cholesterol but also a large quantity of sudanophile lipids accumulates in β-lipoprotein.
1) Two glucidamins and a Molisch-positive mucopolysaccharide were isolated from fresh bovine lungs in electrophoretically homogeneous or almost homogeneous state. 2) The glucidamins contained galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose, mannose, L-fueose, sialic acid and 12 or more amino acids. The mucopolysaccharide contained glucose, xylose and/or lyxose in addition to those sugars found in the glucidamins and also several amino acids. 3) Ultraviolet absorption, optical rotation and electrophoretic mobility of the preparations were examined.
In order to see the disposal ability of pyruvate in diabetic patients, the exogenous or endogenous hyperpyruvaemia was produced by the intravenous infusion of 10g. of sodium pyruvate or 10g. of fructose in 19 diabetic patients and 18 nondiabetic subjects and the urinary excretion of pyruvic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid was observed hourly for three hours. The results revealed that there were no significant differences in the changes of these organic acids excretion after pyruvate or fructose injection between the diabetic group and the nondiabetic group. This indicates that no primary metabolic defect exists at the step where pyruvic acid enters TCA cycle.
A case of concurrent infection with both influenza A-prime and B viruses was reported. The diagnosis was established by a significant coincident, rise of antibody titers against both influenza A-prime and B virus. Moreover, she was attacked about one week later with influenza A which was again confirmed by the hemagglutination-inhibition test then performed (Cf. Table I).
A fatal case of aseptic meningitis caused by HVJ was reported. From cerebrospinal fluid and blood of the patient HVJ was isolated. Though the prognosis of asepite meningitis caused by HVJ is generally good, it should be borne in mind that a child seriously ill with some damage or other in the brain as the present case may die of virus meningitis.
The transudation of a dernyelinating edema through altered blood vessel walls represents the pathogenesis of the demyelination of the corpus callosum in chronic alcoholics (Marchiafava-Bignami's disease); a very probable B1-hypovitaminosis, caused by chronic alcoholic intoxication, seems to be responsible of such vessel walls alterations, Further studies are requested to explain the anatomical substrate of this affection; until today, the highest percentage of Italian reports, leads to suppose the existence of a predisposing racial or costitutional factor.