The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 59, Issue 4
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • Toshihiko Oikawa, Toshio Kurosawa
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 333-342
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    The rod-response was isolated from the cone-responses by the method of electrostimulation, and the effect of intensities of light was investigated upon the spectral distribution curves of rod-response obtained at various parts of the retina.
    1. The maxima of all curves were found at the same spectral region as that of the scotopic visibility curve, that is, at about 510mμ.
    2. Even when the intensity of light was raised to such a high level that the eye became surely photopic, the maxima of the curves did not show any shift. In other words, the rod response curves show no Purkinje shift.
    3. The curves obtained at lower intensities were smooth and coincided well with the scotopic visibility curve by a simple correction, but some irregularities were found on the curves obtained from parafoveal areas at high intensities.
    4. The magnitude of rod-response increased with increasing intensities of light, but was depressed above a certain intensity. This fact and the notches on the rod response curves obtained with spectral lights of high intensities were ascribed to an inhibitory action of cones upon rods.
    Prof. K. Motokawa furnished guidance and helpful criticism, for which we express here hearty thanks.
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  • Hanji Sato
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 343-356
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    In canine, as in human, atria cordis, the primary plexus is formed at the boundary between the epicardium and myocardium, which goes over into the secondary and tertiary plexus formed in the epicardium and myocardium. Minute fibres are also observed running into the endocardium.
    The incoming nerve fibres running into the primary plexus originate in the vagus and sympathetic nerves, the former consiting of non-medullated fibres, so that the distinction between sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres is not possible histologically.
    The distribution of nerve cell groups found in the plexus in the epicardium is also similar by human and canine hearts. Ganglia are mainly found in the dorsal walls of the atria and the entrance of the venae cavae into the heart, but sporadically in all other parts of the atria. In canine heart, as in human (Seto), nerve cell groups are found also in the secondary plexus in the myocardium.
    Nerve cells in the canine atria can be also classified into the cells of Dogiel's Type I and Type 11, of which the latter exist somewhat more abundantly by dog than by man. The nerve cells in canine atria are much smaller in size and simpler in construction than those in human heart, e.g., the pericellular connective tissue capsule being poorly developed, often even to total disappearance, the mantlecell-plasmodium being limited in size and the plasmodium-nuclei very much poorer in number. The number of nerve processes is also smaller than in human heart, especially with the nerve cells Type I, and the ramification and terminal formation of the short processes are much simpler.
    The plasmodium surrounding the nerve cells Type I is generally aligned in a uniform thickness, but as is the case in human heart, frequently the plasmodium is found especially developed at one pole of the cell. But the arrangement of short processes branching and ending therein is far simpler than in man. In nerve cells Type II, the number of short processes is rather smaller than in man, and the terminations thereof more rarely end in special plates.
    The terminations of incoming nerve fibres approaching the intragangliar nerve cells are represented by pericellular terminalreticulum, as in man, but these are much simpler than in man in construction. In dog, rather thick fibres are arranged in a comparatively dispersed interlacing mesh.
    The termination of vegetative nerve fibres is represented by the terminalreticulum in canine atria as in human atria. This comprises the three kinds of elements derived from the incoming sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres and the long processes from the nerve cells, consists of nerve cords formed by extremely minute fibrils arranged reticularly, ends never freely, and stands in tactile supply over any of the controled cells.
    A considerable number of medullated sensory fibres is seen running in canine atria. These end freely, and in form, can be classified into the unbranched endings, the simple branched endings and the endings Type I connected with the depressor reflex. These endings, however, are always much simpler in formation that in man. Their localization is also some-what different from that in man. Beside the above kinds of terminations, there are found branched sensory endings in the walls of the branches of aa. coronariae cordis.
    The unbranched terminations are found in the epicardium, the myocardium and the endocardium of the atria, but in special abundance in the myocardium. They end mainly sharply, but sometimes also upon completing an ansiform course. It is noteworthy that such endings are often formed close beneath the endothelial cell layers of the epi- and endocardium.
    In the simple branched endings consisting of 2 or 3 rami, the branches end generally sharply, but some end bluntly or either in a terminal body formed by fibril dissolution or describing a simple ansiform course.
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  • Nobuo Ogasawara
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 357-369
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    The olfactory bulb in man is divisible into the layer of olactory fibres, the glomerular layer, the gray matter layer and the layer of granule cells and nerve fibres, counting upward from the inferior side.
    The layer of olfactory fibres is composed of many small bundles of olfactory fibres running irregularly. The olfactory fibres are not independently running fibres as are the other sensory fibres, but are represented by a peculiar mesh formation of weakly stainable, minute neurofibrils of various sizes. However, a small number of strongly stainable, independently running, minute fibres is also found among the above. There are also numerous glial cells in the olfactory bundles.
    The glomeruli in the glomerular layer are represented by the regular mesh formation of neuro-fibrils finer than those in the olfactory bundles and go over into the small bundles of olfactory nerve, only rarely containing glial cells.
    The gray matter layer is composed of minute weakly stainable neurofibril nets perhaps of vegetative nature, containing a large number of filial cells as well as scattered weakly stainable nerve cells. The nerve cells in this layer are classifiable into those corresponding to the so-called mitral cells and vegetative nerve cell. However, as the former hardly appear as rounded, mitre or octopus-shaped cells, I wish to propose the name of bulbus cells for them. These are shaped like elongated spindle or triangle, or are stellate, are multipolar with 3-6 nerve processes, having a rather small cell nucleus respectively, and their cell bodies contain weakly stainable neuro-fibril nets. Their processes, both the dendrites and the axons, are made of stout fibres, the former, sometimes after sending out 2-3 rami, lose in size as they run peripherally and finally run into the above mentioned glomeruli, where they play a part in the formation of the latter. This last observation has cost me some overwhelming difficulties. The afferent axons finally become strongly stainable conspicuous fibres and merge into the layer of nerve fibres.
    Vegetative nerve cells are found not only in this layer but also in the vegetative nucleus described below in large number. These are rounded, spindle-shaped or conical cells, as those.found in the brain and the spinal cord, contain weakly stainable delicate neuro-fibril nets and send out 2-4 nerve processes. It must be also mentioned that at they contain a large cell nucleus in the midst of their cell body.
    The layer of granule cells and nerve fibres is composed of numerous bundles of nerve fibres derived from the axons of the bulbus cells running parallel to the long axis of the olfactory bulb, and many round cells arranged alternatively with these fibre bundles. The granule cells are not multipolar nerve cells as accepted hitherto, but are glial cells as those found in the granular layer of the cerebellum (Yamamoto).
    Cajal's so-called pyramidal cells are not sensory in nature, but actually correspond to the vegetative cells in the spindle-shaped vegetative nucleus stretched at the transitional part between the olfactory bulb and tract. Minute vegetative fibres are seen entering and leaving both the ends of this nucleus.
    In short, the dendrites from the bulbus cells go out to play a part in forming the glomeruli, the latter go over into the olfactory fibres, which finally reach the epithelium of the olfactory mucosa, while their axons transmit the received stimuli to the highest olfactory center in the brain. consequently, the bulbus cells are interpreted as the olfactory neurons of first order corresponding to the sensory nerve cells in the cerebrospinal ganglia. No other sensory cells related with the bulbus cells are found in the olfactory bulb.
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  • Nobuo Ogasawara, Yoshihide Abe, Hanji Sato
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 371-378
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    The fine structure of the hard palates of the cat and the hedgehog is also similar to that in man, but in development the former is far in arrear to the latter, especially in the thickness of the epithelium and the size of the papillae in the mucous membrane. Consequently, the development of the sensory terminations formed in the papillae and of the intraepithelial fibres ending in the epithelium stands also in a much lower stage in these mammals than in man. The histological picture of the hard palate of the hedgehog showing a somewhat lower development than that of the cat, the development of the sensory nerve terminations is also to some extent poorer in hedgehog.
    The sensory terminations in the hard palate in cat are chiefly formed in the major papillae, and mostly represented by very simple unbranched terminations. The intraepithelial fibres are also formed by sensory fibres penetrating into the epithelium from the large papillae, and also end mostly in simple unbranched terminations. These fibres are composed of unmedullated smooth-surfaced, uniformly thin fibres, run through or between epithelial cells and end sharply or with small nodes near the surface layer of the epithelium.
    In the hard palate in hedgehog, the sensory terminations in the papillae as well as the intraepithelial fibres are all similar in formation and nature to those in cat, but are developed somewhat poorer than the latter both in number and in scale. In particular, the intraepithelial fibres here mostly end in the basal or middle layer, without reaching the surface layer, of the epithelium.
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  • I. A Role of Pituitary and Adrenal Gland in Connection with the Effect of Alloxan on the Blood Sugar
    Kinori Kosaka
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 379-390
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    1. In hypophysectomized rats, the injection of alloxan does not cause the initial hyperglycemia and the blood sugar always falls immediately after the injection with far more marked degree than in the hypophysectomized non-alloxan-injected rats. The hypoglycemic phase is very severe and often fatal in spite of repeated administration of large amounts of glucose. But in incompletely hypophysectomized rats (1/6-1/7 of the anterior pituitary lobe remained), the typical triphasic reaction of the blood sugar as seen normal rats, is observed. So it is considered that the pituitary is playing an important role in the alloxan initial hyperglycemia.
    2. The reactions obtained in adrenalectomized rats are just same with that in hypophysectomized rats. In the group of completely demedullated rats with non-regenerated cortex the curve of the blood sugar are similar to that of the adrenalectomized rats, while in the rats with regener-ated cortex it is lowered for the period of 30 minutes to 2 hours starting immediately after the alloxan injection, and then the triphasic reaction follows. Especially in cases with hypertrophically regenerated cortex the initial hyperglycemia is superimposed by permanent hyperglycemia without having secondary hypoglycemic phase. These facts reveal that the adrenal cortex is an essential factor to produce the initial hyperglycemia and the role of the adrenal medulla is to start this initial hyperglycemia immediately after the injection of alloxan.
    3. The alloxan produces the significant depletion of ascorbic acid in adrenals of normal rats. So it seems that the alloxan acts as so-called stress which brings about the hyperfunction of pituitary adrenocortical system in normal rats. The author feels that this factor must not be overlooked to understand the mechanism of the alloxan initial hyperglycemia.
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  • II. Role of the Liver in Connection with the Effect of Alloxan on the Blood Sugar
    Kinori Kosaka
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 391-401
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
    1. The significant reduction of the concentration of ascorbic acid in adrenals in normal rats 2 hours after the exposure to cold stress (O°C, 30 minutes) was observed. Normal rats showed the slight hyperglycemia just after the exposure, but the blood sugar returned soon to initial level and held the normal level during 10 hours. In adrenalectomized rats, the blood sugar fell just after the exposure, then turned to upward during 2 hours but did not return to the initial level even after 10 hours.
    2. Although the ascorbic acid concentration in adrenals in rats showed a significant reduction when 1 or 2 mg. of ACTH was given, the fasting blood sugar did not show any changes. So the hyperactivity of pituitary adrenocortical system which is. produced by the alloxan can not be the single cause of the initial hyperglycemia.
    3. The diabetogenic action of alloxan disappears within 5 minutes after the time of injection, without any possible involvement of the liver.
    4. In normal rabbits which were injected alloxan in dose of, 100mg. per kg. of body weight, the response is the typical triphasic reaction of the blood sugar followed by permanent diabetes. However, when. the liver is stunted from the blood stream for 5 minutes after the injection of alloxan by temporary ligation of hepatic artery and portal vein, the alloxan initial hyperglycemia is completely gone or at least markedly repressed. As the influence of operative procedure can entirely be excluded, it is suggested that alloxan has an action to the liver and produces the mobilization of liver glycogen.
    5. These observations and discussions in all lead to a conclusion that the alloxan initial hyperglycemia is probably produced by the hyperactivity of pituitary adrenocortical system on one hand, and by the mobilization of liver glycogen by the effect of alloxan on the liver on the other hand.
    The author acknowledges with deep appreciation the kind advices and helps given to him by Prof. Shigeo Okinaka and Instructor Nobusada Kuzuya.
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  • I. Influence of Bacilli chitinovori on the Culture of Dermatophytes
    Osamu Miura
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 403-406
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
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  • II. Influence of Crude Chitinase Fluid on the Culture of Eungi
    Osamu Miura
    1954 Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 407-409
    Published: April 25, 1954
    Released on J-STAGE: November 28, 2008
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