OMOKAWA, S, KOYAMA, K., SUZUKI, K. and ASANUMA, Y. MitochondrialFunction of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes from Normal and Cirrhotic Liver. Toho ku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4) 265-268-Mitochondrial fractions were obtained from purely isolated hepatocytes of the normal and cirrhotic livers. Mitochondrial function of isolated hepatocytes was evaluated to compare between those from the normal and those from the cirrhotic livers in addition to the evaluation of the mitochondrial function of the normal and cirrhotic liver tissues. Rispiratory control, ADP/O ratio and ATP synthesis were significantly lower in the cirrhoti cliver tissue than those in the normal liver tissue. However, the mitochondrial function of isolated hepatocytes showed no difference between norma l and cirrhotic groups. By electron microscopic examination, debris was more observed in the mitochondrial fractions from the normal and cirrhotic tissues compared to those from hepatocytes. However, no difference of the shape and size of the mitochondria was seen between the fraction from hepatocytes and that from the tissue in each group. These results suggest that, as far as hepatocyte itself is concerned, thecirrhotic liver preserves the sufficient function as well as the normal liver.
TAKEMORI, K., MIKAMI, S., NIHIRA, S. and SASAKI, N. Relationship of BloodPressure to Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Japanese Women. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 269-281-The cross-sectional association of blood pressure with urinary sodium and potassium excretion was investigated with a stepwise regression analysis. Spot urine of 7441 females between 40 and 69 years was collected from 169 municipalities (88 urban and 81 rural) covering all prefectures in Japan. The filter paper sampling technique for urine was used to collect samples of subjects from March to December in 1985. Spot urine samples were analyzed for sodium, potassium and creatinine. In addition, 24-hr sodium and potassium excretions were estimated by predictive equations. Blood pressure, sodium excretion and sodium/potassium ratios were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Consistent positive correlations between urinary sodium and blood pressure, and negative correlations between urinary potassium and blood pressure were observed in the whole country of Japan, in both urban and rural areas, and also in separate observations of twelve regions in Japan with some exceptions. When compared in standardized partial regression coefficients, relative effects of potassium on systolic blood pressure were higher than those of sodium in the w holeof Japan, in urban and rural areas, and in five among the twelve regions. The present Japanese study confirmed a positive within-population relationship between sodium excretion and blood pressure and a negative relationship between potassium excretion and blood pressure.
OMATA, K., MATSUI, K., SATO, D., KAMIOKI, S., OUTI, H. and ABE, K. AtrialNatriuretic Polypeptide (ANP) as Protective Agent of Renal Ischemia. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 283-289-The effect of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) on hemodynamics and renal function was evaluated after the reconstructive surgery of the left renal artery in a patient with renovasular hypertension secondary to Takayasu's arteritis. The reconstructive surgery was done using the femoral artery, since we were unable to obtain adequate vein segments to fit the renal artery. The femoral artery was reconstructed by her saphenous vein segments. After 30min of the aortorenal bypass operation, α-human ANP (α-hANP) was infused intravenously for 10min at a rate of 0.1μg/kg/min. Although total peripheral resistance was decreased by α-hANP infusion, blood pressure was not changed because of the increased cardiac output. Glomerular filtration rate was increased markedly with concomitant increases in urine volume and urinary excretions of sodium, potassium and phosphate. Fractional excretions of water and sodium were not changed, but fractional excretion of phosphate and potassium clearance were increased. Thus, the infusion of α-hANP markedly improved the renal function of the ischemic kidney by the reconstructive surgery of the renal artery, suggesting that α-hANP seems clinically applicable as a protective agent in renal ischemia at renovascular surgery as well as the renal transplantation.
TAMURA, Y., YAMAZOE, M., MATSUBARA. T, IGARASHI, Y., IZUMI, T., SHIBATA, A., HAYASHI, S., TOYOSHIMA, H., SAITO, Y. and MAKINO, H. Recanalization ofExperimental Thrombotic Arterial Occulusion by Radiofrequency Thermal Angioplasty: An Angioscopic Observation. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 291-299 -The efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) angioplasty for recanalization of arterial thrombosis was assessed angioscopically in five dogs. A thrombus was induced by balloon injury of the left femoral artery. Within two hr, thrombi led to total occlusion of the artery in three dogs, subtotal occlusion in one, and about 70% obstruction in one. A metal-tipped catheter, with a tip size of 2.0mm×5.7mm, was advanced into the thrombus and RF at 13.56MHz was delivered repeatedly with gradually increased energies. The arterial lumina were recanalized or enlarged in all dogs. The thrombus surface had a shaggy appearance, and were dark (charring), or mixed dark and white in color. There were relatively large variations in the energies required; 140J in one, 200J in two and 250J in two. The present results suggest that trombotic arterial occlusion, such as acute occlusion complicating balloon angioplasty, can be treated with RF thermal angioplasty. Angioscopy provided detailed information about thrombus surfaces. The variations in required energies indicate the inability to control the thermal effect by energy settings alone. A more sophisticated method such as measurement of tip temperature will be able to overcome this difficulty.
INAMO, Y., AYUSAWA, M., YAMASHITA, T., SASAKI, T., TAKEUCHI, S. and OKUNI, M. Serum Content of Zinc and Vitamin C in Severely HandicappedChildren. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 301-307-As fracture is known to occur more easily in severely handicapped children (SHC), bone mineral content, serum zinc level and serum vitamin C level were determined in 65 SHC. These parameters were found to be greatly reduced in all patients. The decreases in zinc and vitamin C in the serum appeared to be associated with that in bone mineral content. Supplements of zinc and vitamin C may be important to decrease the chance of fracture due to diminished bone mineral content in SHC.
NAGAO, M., MORI, T., TSUCHIYAMA, A. and OYANAGI, K. The Role of AminoAcids and Their Transport Systems in the Regulation of Ureogenesis in thePrimary Culture of Adult Rat Hepatocytes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 309-316-The biosynthesis of urea, the metabolism of ammonia and the transport of amino acids were studied using the primary culture of hepatocytes from adult rats. The urea synthesis and ammonia detoxication were affected by the amino acids of urea cycle intermediates, such as ornithine, arginine and aspartate. When the hepatocytes were incubated in the medium containing 1mM ammonium chloride, the transport activity of system-A, which was determined by the uptake of specific substrate methyl-2-amino isobutyric acid (MeAIB), did not change compared with the control level. However, the transport activity of ornithine was increased to a maximum after 4hr of incubation with ammonia, and then decreased gradually to twice the control level. The activity of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) increased to twice the control. These results indicated that the amino acids of urea cycle intermediates, especially ornithine, can be the important regulators of ureogenesis.
NAGAO, M., TSUCHIYAMA, A., MORI, T., AGATSUMA, Y. and OYANAGI, K. Neonatal Hyperammonemia Associated with Carnitine Deficiency. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 317-323- We report a case of neonatal hyperammonemia associated with secondary carnitine deficiency. She suffered from hyperammonemia soon after the birth, and then presented severe metabolic acidosis at 2 months of age. She was successfully treated for acidosis with oral administration of L-carnitine (100mg/kg/day). Since hyperammonemia recurred with the increase of protein intake, it was necessary to increase the dose of carnitine to 150 mg/kg/day. Urea cycle enzymopathies were excluded from the laboratory data. The urinary organic acid profiled by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed no abnormalities. It was found that the carnitine contents in serum, urine and muscle were decreased. After we investigated the carnitine status in other members of the family, the brother of this patient, who had died of metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia of unknown etiology in the neonatal period, was also revealed to have carnitine deficiency. Since specific enzyme defects which caused secondary carnitine deficiency could not be detected in our patient, further biochemical characterization would be necessary to clarify the cause of hyperammonemia.
MIYAZAKI, K., YAMANAKA, T. and OOHIRA, A. Enhanced Accumulation ofHyaluronate in the Culture of Skin Fibroblasts from Two Patients with Coffin-Lowry Syndrome. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 325-334-Cultured skin fibroblasts were prepared from two unrelated adult patients with full expressions of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated either from the medium or from the cell layer of cultured skin fibroblasts. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of GAG preparations on cellulose acetate film revaled that hyaluronate was the major component both in the medium and in the cell layer. Quantitative analysis of GAGs was carried out by measuring optical density at 615nm of Alcian blue-stained GAG spots on electrophoretograms. Increase in the hyaluronate content was found both in the culture medium and in the cell layer of Coffin-Lowry fibroblasts. In addition, the incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into hyaluronate was similarly activated in skin fibroblasts from patients, suggesting the active biosynthesis and/or the suppressed degradation of hyaluronate by cultured skin fibroblasts from Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The abnormal metabolism of hyaluronate in Coffin-Lowry fibroblasts may be implicated in some of the clinical aspects of this genetic disorder.
OIZUMI, K., ONO, R., KONNO, K. and NUMAZAKI, Y. Isolation ofCytomegalovirus from the Lung Tissue of Patients with Intrapulmonary Neoplasma. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (4), 335-336 -Cytomegalovirus in the lung tissue was detected by demonstrating cytopathic effects on culture of fibroblasts. Three clinical features were common to patients in whose lung tissue cytomegalovirus was identified: (1) They had lung cancer. (2) They were on a high dose of prednisolone. (3) There were diffuse shadows on their chest x-ray film.