AIKAWA, J., MUNAKATA, H., ISEMURA, M. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Acidic GlycopeptidesIsolated from Young Human Aortas. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 1-7 - Intima-media of young human thoracic aortas were digested with pronase, after extraction of saline-soluble matters and fat. Glycopeptide fractions were separated from the resulting glycoconjugate fractions by fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. Acidic glycopeptides (0.15M Fr and 0.3M Fr) were then isolated from the glycopeptide fractions by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 (Cl- form) column chromatography. They contained glucosamine, galactose, mannose and sialic acid as the major sugars and glucose as the minor one, although the proportions of these constituents differed from each other. In addition, galactosamine and fucose were the minor sugars in 0.3M Fr and 0.15M Fr, respectively. 0.3M Fr contained much more sulfate and amino acids than 0.15M Fr. Aspartic acid, proline, glycine, threonine, glutamic acid, valine, serine and alanine were the major amino acids, amounting to 82-89% in total, in these acidic glycopeptides, although their contents differed from each other. It is noteworthy that the proportions of the constituents in the corresponding fractions from young boy and girl with the same age showed similar trend. Although the data indicated the heterogeneity of the carbohydrate and peptide chains of the acidic glycopeptides, the degree of the heterogeneity is smaller than that of sialoglycopeptides isolated previously from aged human aortas.
OGASAWARA, T. and KAN, M. Protective Effect of the Serum against CellularDamage by Active Oxygen in Culture. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 9-20 - It has been known that there is remarkable antioxidant activity in the human sera, especially those in inflammation and pregnancy. In the present investigation, various sera were examined for the antioxidant activity with the aid of cultured cells. It was recognized that the serum added to the culture medium protected cells from harmful action of active oxygen generated by a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) system. The inflammatory serum has the greatest protective power, followed by pregnant and normal sera in this order. The antioxidant activity of the serum was inversely related to the Fe concentrations. The addition of ceruloplasmin with SOD action could not inhibit the tissue damage, while addition of catalase or hemoglobin with catalase activity could inhibit it. The protective effect was valid against not only HX-XO, but also H2O2. These results show that the chief active oxygen to cause cell damage is H2O2 and the scavenger antioxidants in the serum are hemoglobin and catalase.
TSUIKI, A., UEHARA, S., KYONO, K., SAITO, A., HOSHI, K., HOSHIAI, H., HIRANO, M. and SUZUKI, M. Induction of Ovulation with an Estrogen Antagonist, Tamoxifen. Tohoku J. exp. Med. 1984, 144(1), 21-31 - Tamoxifen (Norvadex®), synthesized by the Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., is a triphenylethylene derivative having a clomiphene-like structure and displays antiestrogenic activities. In this study we used tamoxifen for the treatment of anovulatory infertility and investigated the clinical results. Induction rate of ovulation recorded 100% in the patients with sporadic anovulatory cycle, 83.3% in those with persistent anovulatory cycle, 70% in those with the first grade amenorrhea type I and 66.7% in those with the first grade amenorrhea type II. However, tamoxifen was absolutely ineffective against the second grade amenorrhea. The patients with sporadic or persistent anovulatory cycle responded to 40 mg-daily tamoxifen-treatment, recording 100% of ovulatory induction rate. The patients with the first grade amenorrhea also responded to 60 mg-daily treatment, indicating 70% of ovulatory induction rate. The rate of pregnancy established in the women desiring pregnancy marked 15.4%, and 2 out of 4 women with successful pregnancy experienced spontaneous abortion. Out of 4 patients who did not respond to the previous clomiphene treatment, 3 women accomplished ovulatory induction with tamoxifen. The endocrinological dynamics in the tamoxifen treatment were similar to those in the clomiphene treatment.
SHIMIZU, Y., HANEW, K., SATO, S., SASAKI, A., MURAKAMI, O. and YOSHINAGA, K. Evidence for Endogenous Dopaminergic Control of Mineralocorticoids Secretionin Normal Subjects and in Patients with Hyperaldosteronism. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 33-42 - The role of endogenous dopamine (DA) in the secretion of several mineralocorticoids was studied in six normal subjects, eight patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), two patients with non-familial idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (NF-IHA), and four patients with familial IHA (F-IHA). To these subjects 10mg metoclopramide (MCP) was administered intravenously, and plasma aldosterone (Ald), 18-OH-corticosterone (18-OH-B), 18-OH-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC), and DOC were measured by RIA. Further, five normal subjects were studied with MCP test after pretreatment with DA infusion (5μg/kg/min over 90min). After the administration of MCP, normal subjects showed significant increases in their plasma Ald and 18-OH-B, and slight increases in plasma 18-OH-DOC and DOC. However, no significant changes were observed in plasma ACTH, cortisol, PRA, or serum K, Na or Cl. In patients with PA and NF-IHA, plasma Ald and the three precursors were increased after administration of MCP. Especially, marked increases in plasma 18-OH-DOC were seen in PA patients. In contrast, F-IHA patients showed increases in the above mineralocorticoids except 18-OH-B. Following DA infusion in normal subjects neither basal plasma Ald secretion nor the responsivenesses to MCP were modified. These results suggest that endogenous DA plays an inhibitory role in the terminal stages of mineralocorticoids production in man. However, the degrees of the dopaminergic inhibition may be different in normal subjects and the patients with mineralocorticoids excess, and among the three groups of aldosteronism mentioned above.
INO-OKA, E., KITAOKA, S., SHIMIZU, Y., KYONO, H., MAEHARA, K., MARUYAMA, Y., ASHIKAWA, K., ISOYAMA, S., TAMAKI, K., SATOH, S., SUZUKI, H., ISHIDE, N. and TAKISHIMA, T. The Effect of Heart Rate and Left VentricularEnd-Diastolic Pressure on the Direction of ST Segment Displacement in AcuteIschemia. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 43-55 - The correlation between the ST segment displacement and coronary blood flow in various hemodynamic conditions was studied. Five isolated, isovolumic contracting canine hearts were used. The left main and the right and left circumflex (LCx) coronary arteries were cannulated and perfused with support dog's arterial blood. Four pairs of Ag-AgCl ECG electrodes were attached to the epicardium and subendocardium in the LCx perfused area. Heart rate and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were controlled by means of right atrial electrical pacing and infusion or withdrawal of arterial blood into the left ventricle, respectively. LCx flow was reduced by 75, 50, 25% of the control level under the condition of 200beats/min of heart rate and 20mmHg or 5mmHg of LVEDP, and ECGs were recorded. The ST segment elevation was observed in epi- and subendocardial lead ECGs when LCx flow was reduced from 110±27.5ml/min/100g to 72±3ml/min/100g under the condition of normal LVEDP (5mmHg) and a high heart rate (200beats/min), whereas the same degree of reduction in LCx flow under the condition of high LVEDP (20mmHg) and high heart rate (200beats/min) resulted in an epicardial ST segment depression associated with marked subendocardial ST segment elevation. The results suggest that the coronary flow reduction with a higher LVEDP will induce subendocardial ischemia, whereas the same degree flow reduction with a nomal LVEDP induce transmural ischemia.
YOSHIDA, K., IKEUCHI, H., KANO, K., MACHIDA, T., TAKAHASHI, M., MIURA, Y. and MIURA, N. Results of Surgical Treatment of Gastric Cancer-Special Referenceto Pathological Findings. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 57-62 -During 16 year period from 1967 to 1982, a total of 1, 471 patients with gastric cancer were surgically treated at the authors' clinic and 1, 347 of them underwent gastric resection. The 5-year survival rate for 692 of curatively operated patients was 73.8%, in contrast to 11.8% for non-curatively operated cases. A correlation study disclosed the depth of cancer infiltration and the extent of lymphnode metastasis to be most reliable prognostic factors. The 5-year survival rate for stage I cases was 91.0%, 70.0% for stage II, 46.7% for stage III, and 8.6% for stage IV. An improvement in the end-results was attributed mainly to the increased incidence of early cancer in surgical cases, and partially to proper adjuvant chemotherapy for the advanced cancer cases during or long-term after surgery. In fact, the cases of early gastric carcinoma whose depth invasion was limited within the mucosa or submucosa constituted 41.9% of the authors' surgical series in 1967-1982, and 5-year survival rates of patients in stages II, III and IV receiving cancer chemotherapy strikingly improved to 80.6%, 57.3%, and 13.2%, in contrast to 59.7%, 35.2% and 2.4% for control groups not treated with anticancer agents.
IIJIMA, K. Lack of Cross-Reactivity between Human Placental and Rat LiverGlucocerebrosidases. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 63-67. - The production of anti-human placental glucocerebrosidase antibodies in rabbits immunized with a mixture of human placental glucocerebrosidase and Freund's complete adjuvant was confirmed by the immunoprecipitation reaction, immunocompetition and Graber and Williams' immunoelectrophoresis. These immunochemical techniques also unvailed a lack of cross-reactivity between human placental and rat liver glucocerebrosidases against the rabbit antiserum.
ASAKI, S., NISHIMURA, T., SATO, A., SATO, H. and GOTO, Y. Problems inLocalization of Bleeding Sites and the Incidence of Varicose Rupture in EmergencyEndoscopy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 69-75 - An investigation was made for problems involved in identification of bleeding sites and the incidences of bleeding from esophageal and gastric varices in emergency endoscopy within 24 hr after overt gastrointestinal bleeding. Varices or ulcers are not always the source of bleeding, and endoscopic examinations should be performed early after the onset of bleeding to make correct identification of the bleeding site. For such purposes, aspiration using endoscopy, washing under direct observation using a teflon tube and changing of body posture were found effective. During the 6 years from 1977, bleeding from the esophageal or gastric varices was detected in 4 cases out of 30 cases of esphageal or gastric varices which had undergone emergency endoscopy for overt bleeding. After June, 1979, when hemostatic measure using pure ethanol was applied actively, bleeding from esophageal or gastric varices was observed in 4 cases (2.5%) out of 160 cases. Results of the present emergency endoscopy revealed that the incidence of rupture of varices was not so high as had been expected conventionally.
KAWAMURA, S., TOHNO, H., ABE, I., SAITO, A., YAMAYA, T., AOYAMA, H., HANEDA, Y., CHIBA, Y. and YOSHIDA, Y. Prognostic Evaluation of Early Detectionof Relapse in Adult Acute Leukemia. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 77-82 - A criterion was established in a previous study to detect the relapse of adult acute leukemia in its early stage, i.e., when lymphocytes in peripheral blood increased over 45% of the leukocytes during the maintenance therapy, bone marrow puncture was immediately performed to examine the leukemic cells. By this criterion the relapse was detected earlier than by other criteria. To study the effect of early detection of the relapse in adult acute leukemia on the results, the second remission rate and the survival time were compared between the following groups. Group I consisted of 11 patients, whose relapse was determined by our criterion. Group II consisted of 8 patients whose relapse was determined by the appearance of leukemic cells in peripheral blood. The second remission was accomplished in 7 of 11 patients in Group I (64%) and in 1 of 8 in Group II (13%) (p<0.05). The mean (±S.D.) duration of complete remission in Group I was 9.7± 7.8 months and not significantly longer than the value in Group II (5.3±3.9 months). The interval from relapse to death was 10.3±5.9 and 6.1±3.8 months in Groups I and II, respectively. The interval from relapse to death of 7 patients who accomplished the second remission in Group I was 12.5±5.5 months. This interval was significantly longer than in Group II (p<0.02). The mean survival time was 22.2±9.6 months in Group I and 13±2.5 months in Group II. The mean survival time of 7 patients accomplished the second remission in Group I was 26. 7±9.4 months which was significantly longer than in Group II (p<0.01). The results showed that our criterion to detect relapse in the early stage was effective for prolongation of the survival time in adult acute leukemia.
WATANABE, T., KOIZUMI, A., FUJITA, H., KUMAI, M. and IKEDA, M. Role ofRice in Dietary Cadmium Intake of Farming Population with No KnownMan-Made Pollution in Japan. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 83-90 -The 24-hr duplicates of a whole day diet were collected in winter seasons from 1042 farmers in 49 non-polluted regions in Japan, and the amount of boiled rice in each duplicate was compared with the cadmium content in the duplicate to evaluate the role of rice in daily cadmium intake via food. The daily boiled rice intake (in terms of regional geometric means) varied in the range of 720-1, 100g/ day for males and 300-800g/day for females, yet positively correlated with whole day dietary cadmium intake in males (0.07<p<0.08), in females (p<0.01) and the combination of the two sexes (p<0.01). The findings, in accordance with other reports, suggest that rice is an important source of cadmium intake among Japanese population even in non-polluted areas. The roles of sake (rice wine) and beer appeared to be quite minor as the cadmium contents were very low.
OTOKIDA, K., NAKAMURA, M., KAWAMURA, K., KANAZAWA, S. and KATO, M. Chromatographic Elution Profiles of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Measured bythe Methods Using Different Substrates in the Plasma from Normotensive andHypertensive Subjects. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 91-101 - The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma collected from normotensive and hypertensive patients was measured chromatographically by two different methods using hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL-ACE) and synthetic angiotensin I (AI-ACE) as substrates. A single peak was observed in the elution profiles of HHL-ACE on both Sephadex G 150 column and DEAE Sephadex A 50 cellulose column chromatographies. A single peak of AI-ACE appeared on the gel-filtration. However, several peaks of AI-ACE were seen on DEAE Sephadex A 50 cellulose column chromatography, suggesting that there are various types of ACE which hydrolyze angiotensin I but not HHL.
SHIMIZU, T., NODA, Y., GOTO, S., HASEGAWA, I. and FUKUDA, T. High Yieldof Platelet-Rich Plasma from CPD Blood Compared to ACD Blood. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 103-104 - The yields of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained by centrifugation of CPD (citrate-phosphate-dextrose) blood and ACD (acid-citrate-phosphate) blood were compared. The volumes of PRP from 5ml blood in test tubes and 200ml blood in bags were larger by 4% and 4.5%, respectively, when CPD was used as an anticoagulant. In addition, the number of platelets in PRP from CPD blood was higher than that from ACD blood. These data suggest that the optimal centrifugal condition for CPD blood should be different from that for ACD blood.
NAKAGOMI, O., KUTSUZAWA-NAKAGOMI, T., OYAMADA, H., SUTO, T. and OCHI, A. Enzyme Immunoassay for Subgrouping Human Rotaviruses Using MonoclonalAntibodies. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 144 (1), 105-106 - Rotavirus group-specific (common in human rotaviruses) and subgroup 1-specific monoclonal antibodies were established and an enzyme immunoassay was developed for Subgrouping human rotaviruses.