TSUNODA, K., ABE, K., YASUJIMA, M., SEINO, M., IMAI, Y., SATO, M., OMATA, K., KUDOU, K., TAKEUCHI, K., HAGINO, T., FANG, S. and YOSHINAGA, K. Comparison of Immunoreactive Renin and Plasma Renin Activity in HumanPlasma. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 179-186-Measurement of immunoreactive plasma renin concentration (PRC) using direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) was compared with the common procedure, measurement of plasma renin activity (PRA). The sensitivity of the PRC assay was 5pg/ml. In 67 normal subjects aged 45.2±1.2 year, the mean PRC value was 17.0±0.9pg/ml in the recumbent position and 38.0±5.4pg/ml in the upright position. In patients with high renin essential hypertension and renovascular hypertension, discrepancies were observed between changes in PRA and PRC at 60min after the administra tion of captopril. In a patient with Bartter's syndrome PRC was markedly elevated (393pg/ml) and the chages in PRA and in PRC after captopril were very different (452% vs. 1249%). In all 10 cases of primary hyperaldosteronism PRC was less than 5pg/ml. The correlation coefficient between PRC and PRA was 0.85 (n=227, p<0.01). The slope of the regression line between PRA and PRC decreased in proportion to PRC values. Direct RIA for PRC is likely to be useful for the determination of plasma active renin when renin levels are high or substrate concentrations are abnormal. Moreover, the combined use of PRA and PRC measurements might be useful in assessing abnormalities in renin substrate concentration as well as in PRC.
AIBA, S. and TAGAMI, H. In Vitro Induction of Proliferation andDifferentiation of Uncommitted Spleen Cells by Epidermal Cell-Derived Cytokines. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 187-202-In this study of the hematopoietic functions of the cytokines released by the epidermal cells, we examined the effects of culture supernatants of epidermal cells and dermal cells from new born mice on uncommitted spleen cells. The epidermal cell culture supernatants (ECCS) stimulated the proliferation of nylon wool-passed I-A- spleen mononuclear cells (SC) much more vigorously than did the dermal cell culture supernatants (DCCS). The main responding cells were I-A-Thy-1-Lyt-1-Lyt-2- cells. Giemsa staining of cytocentrifuge preparations disclosed that SC cultured with ECCS or DCCS were composed of about 50% lymphoid cells, 30-40% granulocytes, 10% macrophages, and a few mast cells and megakaryocytes. Immunoperoxidase staining of the cytocentrifuge preparations showed that SC cultured with ECCS consisted of less than 10% I-A-, about 40% Thy-1+, 10-20% Lyt-1+, less than 6% Lyt-2+, 30-40% Mac-1+, 10-30% Mac-2+, 40-55% Mac-3+, and 10-20% Asialo-GM1+ cells. A double immunofluorescence study showed that 11% of Mac-1+ cells, 34% of Mac-2+ cells and 14% of Mac-3+ cells were I-A+, whereas all the I-A+ cells were either Mac-1+, Mac-2+, or Mac-3+, and that the percentage of Thy-1+Asialo-GM1+ was less than 5%. In a panel of 3 available purified cytokines known to be secreted by keratinocytes which were used as a positive control, a similar stimulatory effect was recognized with GM-CSF an d IL-3 but no such effect was found with recombinant IL-1. These data suggest that ECCS can stimulate the development of uncommitted SC into lymphocytes, different subsets of macrophages probably including Langerhans cells, granulocytes, mast cells and megakaryocytes. They constitute direct and convincing evidence indicating the combined effect of various cytokines released by epidermal cells on the proliferation and maturation of hematopoietic pr ecursor cellsinto different immunocompetent cells in the skin.
YAMADA, S., MATSUZAWA, T., YAMADA, K., YOSHIOKA, S., ONO, S. and HISHINUMA, T. A Modified Signal Intensity Equation of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill Pulse Sequence for MR Imaging. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 203-209-The signal intensity equation of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence for magnetic resonance imaging was modified to: S(n)=k•M0•exp (-n•Te/T2) [1-exp(-Tr/T1)] where S(n) is a signal intensity of “n-th” echo; k, constant; M0, initial longitudinal magnetization; n, echo number; Te, echo interval; and Tr, recovery time [Tr=TR-(N-1/2)•Te; TR, repetition time; N, number of echoes]. To evaluate the accuracies of T1 and T2 values calculated from this modified equation, a phantom experiment using five tubes filled with 0.5 to 8mM copper sulfate solutions was performed using a 0.14-T resistive whole-bo dy MR scanner and a spectrometer system. The differences between the image values by this equation and the bulk values by the spectrometer were less than 6.2% (mean±S.D., 3.3±2.1%) in T2 and 15.6% (10.4±4.9%) in T1 (except 8mM). By this modification, not only the image T2 value with a high accuracy but the image T1 value can be obtained simultaneously.
SAGISAKA, K., FLETCHER, S.M., KATSURA, S. and YOKOI, T. Specific Captureof ABH Blood Group Antigens of the Red Cell or Body Fluids by DoubleAntibody Sandwich-ELISA. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 211-219-A double antibody sandwich-ELISA method for the detection of the ABH blood group of each constituent of mixed stains is described. Extracts from mixed stains were applied to microtitration plates coated with rabbit polyclonal antisera to red cells or body fluids. ABH antigens in body fluid stains which were captured by the polyclonal antibodies were detected by monoclonal anti-A and -B and enzyme-conjugated anti-mouse immunoglobulin. By this procedure, ABH antigens of only saliva, semen or red cells could be detected from mixed stains, butno ABH antigen capture activity was observed using anti-sweat, -milk, -vaginal secretion, -erythrocyte mem brane and -band 3 antibodies.
TAZAWA, Y., YAMADA, M., ITO, K., NAKAE, S., HAYAMIZU, S., TAMAOKI, K., CHIBA, R. and NUMAZAKI, Y. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Low-Birth-WeightInfants with Acute Respiratory Tract Disease. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 221-226-To determine a participation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in acute respiratory tract disease (ARTD) of low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, specific antibodies against CMV antigens, IgG antibodies against early antigens of CMV (IgG EA) and IgM antibodies against membrane antigens of CMV (IgG MA) were analyzed. The frequency of IgG EA in patients with ARTD was higher than that in controls (46% vs. 32%), and the geometrical mean titer (GMT) of IgG EA in the patients was also higher than that in controls (50.2 vs. 20.1). Five of 15 ARTD patients had IgM MA, and the frequency was significantly higher than that of controls (33% vs. 1.3%, p<0.01). Eleven of 15 LBW patients with ARTD had a history of blood transfusions during the neonatal period, and 5 of them had significant IgM MA indicating active CMV infection. All 4 LBW patients without blood transfusion were negative for IgM MA. These results suggest a close relationship of CMV infection to ARTD of LBW infants, but it remains for further studies whether blood transfusion is a primary source of CMV infection in LBW infants.
KOHNO, S., WATANABE, K., HAMAMOTO, A., DOTSU, Y., KOGA, H., HAYASHI, T., SHIGENO, Y., YAMAGUCHI, K., SAITO, A. and HARA, K. Transthoracic NeedleAspiration of the Lung in Respiratory Infections. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 227-235-Transthoracic needle aspiration of the lung in guinea pigs with experimental pseudomonas pneumonia was evaluated. The number of bacteria in aspirates correlated well with that of bacteria in the lungs which showed diffuse pneumonia (107 inoculum group). The number of deaths of experimental animals increased together with an increase of the times of aspiration. This procedure was also investigated in 16 patients of pneumonia and 17 patients of pulmonary abscess. The isolation rate of pathogen from pneumonia was 31.3% and that from pulmonary abscess 58.8%. A higher isolation rate was obtained with purulent aspirates. Predominantly anaerobic bacteria were isolated, and in pulmonary abscess usually in association with other bacteria. This method could be applied with success, for determining responsible pathogens. Even the normal oropharyngeal flora such as α-Streptococcus could be identified as pathogens. The complication rate was relatively low (6 out of 33 patients, 18.2%) including hemoptysis as a major one and pneumothorax or bloody sputum as minor ones. Transthoracic needle aspiration was reevaluated in experimental and clinical materials and was found to be an excellent and safe method for determining the responsible pathogen of respiratory infection.
FUJIMOTO, T., MATSUMOTO, T. and SHOJI, S. Disorganizing-Fibrosing Processesin Alveolar Walls of Interstitial Pneumonia, “Alveolopneumonitis”: A MorphopathokgicalStudy. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 237-251-Disorganizing-fibrosing processes of alveolar walls in 13 autopsied (including 4 previously biopsied) and 3 biopsied cases of acute and chronic interstitial pneumonia were presented. The processes of alveolar walls were characterized initially by his tolysis of the alveolar walls and transformation of the tissue into mesh or reticular structure caused by proliferation of fixed cells probably of endothelial cell origin, subsequently by formation of basement membrane-like structures along the proliferated cells, and ultimately by either fibrosis of the entire thickness of the disorganized tissue or axial fibrosis with accumulation of proliferated cells towards axis and peripheral recanalization. These proceses tended to occur in the subpleural regions and extend thereafter to the deeper portions of lungs. In some cases recurrent alveolitis which occurred on the basis of axial fibrosis as aforementioned was noted. Problems concerning genesis and nature of these processes were discussed, and a new nomenclature “alveolopneumonitis” was proposed instead of interstitial pneumonia.
NAGANUMA, H. and SASANO, N. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase and 17α-Hydroxylasein Microsomal Fraction of Functioning Adrenocortical Tumors. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 253-262-In order to survey the enzymic activities of steroidogenesis in functioning adrenocortical tumors, we investigated the activities of steroid 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase in microsomal fractions of 12 surgically resected adrenocortical tumors associated with Cushing's syndrome (5 adenomas and one carcinoma), primary aldosteronism (5 adenomas) and adrenogenital syndrome (AGS) (one carcinoma), and one adrenocortical hyperplasia resulting from Cushing's disease. Seven adrenal cortices from the patients with mammary carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma or pheochromocytoma were used for normal control. In normal controls 21-hydroxylase activities with progesterone as a substrate were 1.61±0.25nmole/min/mg protein and those with 17α-hxdroxyprogesterone were 5.22±1.06nmole/min/mg protein. The activity of 21-hydroxylase was higher in four cases of 5 aldosteronomas than in normal controls. Those activities in Cushing's adenomas were in the range of normal controls in this study. 17α-hydroxylase activities were much variable from case to case even though in normal controls (4.50±2.40nmole/min/mg protein), and i nmost cases of adenomas 17α-hydroxylase activities were in the range of norm alcontrols. Activities of both hydroxylase in carcinomas were lower than in normal controls. The present paper showed the abnormal steroidogenic enzyme activities in aldosteronomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
ISHII, A., KAKUTA, K., TSUCHIYA, S. and KONNO, T. Chronic MyelocyticLeukemia Probably Promoted by Growth Hormone. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1989, 158 (3), 263-264-The study shows clinical evidence that growth hormone (GH) presumably promoted Phl-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia in a 14-year-old boy who was receiving GH treatment for growth failure after surgery and irradiation for craniopharyngioma. Leukocytosis associated with immature myelocytic cells and low leukocyte alkaline phosphatase score appeared one year after GH treatment. Cytogenic study showed the presence of Phl chromosome.