In the presence of an antibiotic, datemycin, the agglutination phenomenon of C. albicans was first recognized. Further study revealed that the agglutination reaction was restricted to only susceptible strains, and these cells have to be in vegetative state but not killed. The reaction was evident only in room or blood temperature but not in the cold. The optimum pH was in the vicinities of 7.0. Sugars which are utilized by the tested organisms had the stimulating effect on the agglutination. Further microscopic examination revealed that the mycelium formation of the tested cells was the real mode of this agglutination. In a slide cell culture system, the fact that the lower concentration of datemycin stimulates the mycelium formation of Candida was quite evident. Both agglutinative and inhibitory activities of datemycin was partly reversed by the addition of cysteine.
The values concerning the cerebral circulation and metablism of 24 healthy normotensive subjects and 51 patients with essential hypertension were measured, for studying the influence of aging on those functions, and also the significance of the complication of cerebral arteriolosclerosis, so closely related with aging, was discussed. 1. In any group of normotensive as well as of hypertensive subjects, cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) tended to increase and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) to decrease with advance in age. This tendency was more evident in the latter than in the former group. 2. The mean values concerning the cerebral circulation and metabolism of the patients with essential hypertension were studied in comparison with those of normotensive subjects, and it was found that the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and CVR were found markedly higher in the former, whether of the middle or old age, than those of the latter subjects of the same age range. The mean CBF and CMRO2 were not found significantly different in the normotensive and the hypertensive subjects of the middle age groups, but in the old age groups those values were slightly lowered in the subjects with essential hypertension. 3. When the patients with essential hypertension are complicated with retinal arteriolosclerosis, in general the increase in CVR was more prominent, in particular, more so in old patients, and simultaneously, in not a few cases, the disturbance in cerebral circulation and metabolism was more evident, CBF and CMRO2 showing a tendency of lowering.
On 51 cases of essential hypertension the relations between the clinical findings and the cerebral circulation and metabolism measured by N2O method have been investigated and the following facts elucidated: 1. With the advance of the retinal findings according to Keith-Wagener's classification, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) tend further to decrease and cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) to increase. The latter has a particularly close parallelism with the retinal findings. 2. In the group showing the hypertrophy of the left ventricle on the roentgenogram or the group, in which the left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary insufficiency or myocardial damage is suggested by the electrocardiographical findings, the disturbances in the cerebral circulation and metabolism are found the severer than in the groups without such finding. Similar relation in the group with prolonged circulation time may be confirmed. 3. No close parallelism is established between CBF and renal blood flow (RBF), while some correlation is found between CVR and renal vascular resistance (RVR), also, between the renal function, as tested with P. S. P. excretion, on the one hand and CBF and CVR on the other. 4. In the cases with lowered hemoglobin content of the blood, CBF is to some extent augmented.
For studying the effects of lowered blood pressure induced by prolonged oral administration of hypotensive agents on the cerebral circulation and metabolism in essential hypertension, 7 cases with essential hypertension were administered with Serpasil alone and 4 cases with Serpasil in combination with Apresoline and the values concerning the cerebral circulation and metabolism before and after lowering blood pressure by those drugs were studied in comparison. 1. Following lowered blood pressure, cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) was found fallen in all the cases, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) risen in most of the cases, showing a tendency to return to normal findings, but in a few cases of them CBF and CMRO2 were found unchanged or decreased. 2. The combined use of Serpasil and Apresoline was found more effective in improving the cerebral circulation and metabolism than the single use of Serpasil. 3. In general, the improvement in the cerebral circulation and metabolism following lowered blood pressure was more marked in the cases with mild retinal findings and less in those with advanced retinal findings, and in 2 cases with marked reduction of the blood pressure was observed an aggravation of cerebral circulation and metabolism and one of them was followed by complication with cerebral softning. 4. Details on one of the cases that showed improvement and one that showed deterioration after lowering blood pressure were given. 5. It was infered that for preventing serious complications by use of hypotensive agents much caution should be paid to avoid to lower the blood pressure excessively, taking the grade of retinal findings as index.
On 27 hypertensive postapoplet'c patients, 24 of which were complicated with hemiplegia and 3 of which were complicated with bilateral hemiplegia, cerebral circulation and metabolism were measured by N2O method. 1. The disturbances in cerebral circulation and metabolism were exaggerated in those patients compared with hypertensive patients without apoplectic attack or normotensive persons. 2. No significant difference in cerebral circulation and metabolism could be detected between cerebral softning group and cerebral bleeding group. In patients with bilateral hemiplegia, which had cerebral attacks repeatedly, the most apparent disturbances could be found in cerebral circulation and metabolism. 3. A correlation to some extent could be detected between cerebral circulation and metabolism on the one hand and retinal findings or cardiac findings on the other, but it was not remarkable compared with that in hypertensive, non-apoplectic patients. No parallelism could be found between age and the cerebral circulation and metablism. Differences between 2 groups, with and without severe motor disturbances were not significant. 4. The cause of disturbances in cerebral. circulation and metabolism in postapoplectic patients was discussed, the correlation between those changes in them and clinical findings being closely examined.
Potentials in response to microillumination were recorded with a 3 M KCl-filled microelectrode of about 1 μ in diameter in the illuminated and surrounding areas of the inverted preparation of the carp's isolated retina. 1. The shape of an electric response to a small spot of light less than 1mm. in diameter was almost rectangular, and its polarity was positive at the illuminated part, but negative in the surrounding area. The negative potential was detectable as far as 2mm. from the margin of the illuminated part. 2. Light adaptation of suitable intensity was favorable for the manifestation of negative potentials in the surrounding area, and this effect is to be ascribed to suppression of the effect of stray light by light adaptation. 3. The negative potential was suppressed at low temperatures below 8°C more strongly than the positive potential. 4. No negative potential was induced beyond a mechanical cut made closely to the margin of the illuminated area. 5. The positive potential at the illuminated locus was highest at the outer surface of the retina, while the negative one in the surrounding area was maximal in amplitude at an apparent depth of about 100 μ from the receptor side.
Since methods for successful cultivation of tubercle bacilli from genital organs were established more than a dozen years ago (Shinoda & Iwabuchi5), 1941; Furuhashis6), 1947; Halbrecht7), 1947; Yamaguchi8), 1952), studies on genital tuberculosis have been encouraged and minute schedules of classification of tuberculous findings based on HSG have been undertaken by Shinoda & Takahashi2) (1943), Kika, Yamaguchi, et al.9-12) (1951) in Japan and noteworthy reports on the subjects have appeared in Europe too, of Magnusson14) (1945, 1947), Rozin3) (1952, 1954), Ekengren & Rydén4) (1952) and some others15)16)17). On the correlation, however, between the different types of tuberculous HSG shadows, their combination and the relation of the findings to discharge of tubercle bacilli we have no report available to date. We have once discussed the pathological pictures and development of genital tuberculosis classifying the cases with the disease into three groups with consideration to the results of cultivation of tubercle bacilli and endometrial biopsy (Kika, Yamaguchi, et al.9), 1952) and in the present paper, have described the existence of Type A and B among the representative types of tubal findings on HSG, discovered in our closer examination of the HSG of tuberculous cases. From considerations on some relavant findings, we are led to conclude that the Type A findings are younger than the Type B findings and it seems the former develops eventually into the latter. The fundamental type of uterine findings was inferred to consist in the tiny serrations in the uterine walls, which first arise in the fundus near the uterine cornu and gradually spread all over the uterine wall. These has been no report on the development of genital tuberculosis studied from the angle of HSG findings, except that by Ekengren & Ryden4) (1950) on the progress of tubal tuberculosis. Their results are in rather good agreement with the ours, but we must state with regret that they failed to study the subject from the bacteriological angle and to review the results in comprehensive discussion with the uterine and the pelvic roentgenographic findings. Our study, we hope, my serve in supplementing some of the shortcomings of their studies.