TAKEMORI, K., MIKAMI, S., NIHIRA, S. and SASAKI, N. Relationship ofUrinary Sodium and Potassium and of Urinary Sodium/Creatinine, Potassium/ Creatinine and Sodium/Potassium Ratios to Stomach Cancer and CerebrovascularDisease Mortalities in Japanese Women. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (3), 185-194-To test Joossens's hypothesis that salt is a common cause of both cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and stomach cancer (SC), the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of SC and CVD were related to urinary Na and K and urinary Na/creatinine (Cr), K/Cr, and Na/K ratios. Fifty spot urine of females between 40 to 69 years was collected from each of 169 municipalities (88 urban and 81 rural) covering all prefectures in Japan using the filter paper sampling technique in 1985. While the SMR levels of CVD correlated significantly with Na, Na/Cr and Na/K, the SMR levels of SC showed no correlation with Na, K, Na/Cr, K/Cr or Na/K. It was therefore concluded that the geographical distribution of female SMR for SC could not be explained using only the urinary Na excretion as an index of Na intake, and that multiple risk factors and risk reducing factors should be taken into account to explain the distribution.
UEHARA, S., ABE, Y., SAITO, T., YOSHIDA, Y., WAGATSUMA, S., OKAMURA, K., YAJIMA, A. and MANDAI, M. The Incidence of Vertical Transmission of HepatitisC Virus. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 195-202-This study was undertaken to clarify the incidence of the vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). During the third trimester, 2015 pregnant women were examined as to anti-HCV antibodies. Anti-HCV antibody seropositive women were examined for HCV-RNA in peripheral blood at labor and in breast milk. Their offspring were also examined for HCV-RNA in umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood one week after birth and during subsequent outpatient visits. The following results were obtained: (1) Twelve of the 2015 pregnant women (0.6%) were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies; (2) Seven of the twelve women (58%) seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies were also seropositive for HCV-RNA; (3) Three newborns of the seven HCV-RNA seropositive women (43%) were found to have HCV-RNA in the cord blood; (4) In the three newborns HCV-RNA had disappeared from the peripheral blood within one month after birth; (5) Two of the seven HCV-RNA seropositive women (29%) had HCV-RNA positive breast milk; (6) The possibility of infection via breast milk was shown in one infant at ten months after birth. Based on these results, it is indicated that HCV vertical transmission is possible in more than half of the HCV-RNA seropositive mothers. However, because of the disappearance of HCV from the infants' peripheral blood, further following study is needed.
ITOI, E., GRABOWSKI, J.J., MORREY, B.F. and AN, K.-N. Capsular Propertiesof the Shoulder. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 203-210-The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties of the capsule of the glenohumeral joint. Twelve fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders were studied. Capsular strips were prepared from four different sites (anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior) of the capsule. One end of the capsular sections was left attached to the humerus, and the other excised was fixed in a clamp of an Instron universal testing machine. Maximum load, strength (maximum stress), and modulus of elasticity of these four capsular portions were measured. The most common mode of failure was tear at the midsubstance (68%), followed by tear at the clamp-capsule junction (23%), and detachment from the humerus (9%). The posterior capsule (1.0±0.4mm) was thinner than the anterior (1.8±0.3mm), superior (1.6±0.4mm), and inferior capsule (1.5±0.3mm). Among the four portions of the capsule, the posterior capsule showed the greatest strength (216.6±58.2kg/cm2) and modulus of elasticity (683.1±228.8kg/cm2), whereas the superior capsule showed the least strength (82.4±33.5kg/cm2). There were no significant differences in maximum load. The greater strength of the posterior capsule may be one explanation for the low incidence of posterior shoulder dislocation.
TANAKA, M., KISHI, K., McCARRON, R.M. and MIYATAKE, T. The Generation of Macrophages from Precursor Cells Incubated with Brain Endothelial Cells-A Release of CSF-1 Like Factor from Endothelial Cells- Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (3), 211-220-The perivascular macrophages in the brain are thought to be derived from bone marrow precursor cells. Results presented here demonstrate that immature macrophages obtained from nonadherent spleen cell populations can adhere to cerebrovascular endothelial cell (EC) monolayers and proliferate. The proliferation of these cells can be stimulated by either purified murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or EC conditioned medium but not by IL-3. No proliferation of the GM-CSF- or IL-3-dependent murine cell line IC-2 was observed in the presence of EC conditioned medium. Macrophage-like cells could also be derived from murine bone marrow cells but inhibited by anti-macrophage-CSF (M-CSF or CSF-1). The capacity of EC conditioned medium to induce the proliferation of macrophage-like cells from the spleen is therefore not due to the release of GM-CSF but CSF-1. In concomitant experiments using mature macrophages incubated on EC monolayers, no proliferation was observed. These findings suggest that the growth of perivascular macrophages in the brain may be stimulated by cerebrovascular EC.
HU, Y.H., SHIMIZU, H., KAWAKAMI, N., TAKATSUKA, N., IDO, M. and HIROSE, H. Increasing Trends in Mortality Rate of Aortic Aneurysms in Japan, 1955-90. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 221-228-To know the characteristics of mortality from aortic aneurysms in Japan, the age-adjusted and age-specific mortality rates of the diseases were calculated based on the Vital Statistics of Japan published from the Statistics and Information Department, Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of Health and Welfare. The overall age-adjusted mortality rate increased 24.8-fold from 0.43 to 10.98 per 100, 000 for males, and 18.6-fold from 0.23 to 4.54 per 100, 000 for females from 1955-90. The most common type was abdominal aortic aneurysms followed by dissecting and thoracic aortic aneurysms. The mortality rates of dissecting and thoracic aortic aneurysms increased greater than that of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The mortality rate of dissecting aneurysms was higher than that of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in age groups of 64 years or under. The mortality rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms was the most common in age groups of 65 years or over.
TSUBOTA, N., MUROTANI, A. and YOSHIMURA, M. A Huge Non-InvasiveThymoma Causing Acute Dyspnea. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 229-233 -We report a patient with an extra-ordinarily huge thymoma weighing 1, 930 g and measuring 21×20×15cm that filled almost the entire hemithorax. The tumor was successfully removed and the patient made a good recovery. Despite of its large size, the tumor was benign both clinically and histologically, and the pathological diagnosis was epithelial thymoma of non-invasive type. The per-ioperative changes of this patient's lung function are discussed in detail.
TSUBOTA, N., YOSHIMURA, M., MUROTANI, A., MIYAMOTO, Y. and MANIWA, K. Results of Surgical Treatment for Calcified Tuberculous Empyema: Improved Pulmonary Function Obtained with Lung Preserving Policy. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 235-242-We treated thirteen cases of calcified tuberculous empyema during the nine years from 1984 to 1992. Six patients having mild symptoms were categorized as Type I, and the remaining seven with severe symptoms as Type II. The patients of Type I were all successfully treated by complete empyemectomy with or without lung resection. All the patients of Type II suffered from major symptoms and were burdened by larger empyema cavities with formation of bronchial fistulas. Five of the latter were successfully treated, but two died, one from MRSA infection and another from intestinal necrosis following omentopexy. Our guide lines for the treatment of tuberculous empyema are: Lung resection must be minimal. Type I patients could be managed by simple empyemectomy with or without minor thoracoplasty. Open thoracostomy prior to the empyemectomy is not necessary. If the patient who belongs to Type II is aged and in a critical state, open thoracostomy must be taken as the first choice. Omentopexy is reliable, but it should be restricted to selected cases. Reasonable dead space and minor air leakage may safely be left behind if the cavity is surrounded by noninfected raw surface of the chest wall and diaphragm. Better quality of life was revealed by exercise test with improved oxygen consumption, compared to the preoperative state.
KASHIMURA, J., SHIMOSEGAWA, T., IGUCHI, K., MOCHIZUKI, T., YANAIHARA, N., KOIZUMI, M. and TOYOTA, T. The Stimulatory Effects and Binding Characteristicsof PACAP27 in Rat Dispersed Pancreatic Acini. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 243-254-Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a recently isolated active peptide of the VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) family. Two bioactive forms, PACAP38 and PACAP27, a shorter N-terminal amidated peptide of PACAP38, have been identified. In this study, we explored the action of PACAP27 in rat dispersed pancreatic acini and the characteristics of its binding sites. PACAP27 stimulated amylase secretion and intracellular cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. Adding 0.5mM IBMX increased the potency of PACAP27 on the amylase secretion, but did not change the efficacy. The biological action of PACAP27 was mediated via intracellular cAMP as is also the case with PACAP38 or VIP. The time course study, however, revealed that PACAP stimulated the initial amylase secretion greater than VIP, suggesting an involvement of mechanisms other than intracellular cAMP. Binding studies using 125I-PACAP27 and 125I-VIP indicated that the binding sites for PACAP27 interacted with PACAP27 and VIP with a similar affinity. These observations suggested the presence of type II PACAP-binding sites in the normal acini of the rat pancreas which may be functionally coupled with acinar enzyme secretion.
KAWASAKI, H. Comparative Studies on Proteodermatan Sulfate of BovineGastrointestinal Tract. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171(3), 255-266-Proteodermatan sulfate was extracted from four areas of the bovine gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon) with 4M guanidine-HCl and then purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Dermatan sulfate chains which made up proteodermatan sulfate from each area were separately prepared by Pronase P and endo-β-xylosidase digestion. The properties of the proteodermatan sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains were compared using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular size of proteodermatan sulfate purified from each area was estimated to be greater than 8×105, and the molecular sizes of dermatan sulfate chains from esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon were 27, 000, 24, 500, 21, 000, and 21, 500, respectively. The dermatan sulfate chains from the esophagus were slightly undersulfated in comparison with the others. These results show that the molecular sizes of proteodermatan sulfate from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract are similar to each other, but are larger than those from other tissues. Dermatan sulfate chains differed from each other to a slight degree with respect to chain length and sulfation, that from the esophagus being the largest. These differences in proteodermatan sulfate structure seem to reflect the organ specificities of the gastrointestinal tract.