The recovery time of rods to the fully dark adapted state after flash exposure was psychophysically and electrophysiologically measured. The recovery time increased abruptly once cones were activated. This abrupt increment was not found for the receptor component (P III) of the frog electroretinogram. It was suggested that the cone activation results in inhibitory influence upon the recovery process of the rod sensitivity.
Over the whole course of dark adaptation, light- and color detection thresholds were measured. At 6° in the nasal visual field, the effect of wavelength was examined. After the rod-cone break (Kohlrausch kink), the color threshold began to rise while the light threshold was progressively decreasing. The rise of the color threshold was more remarkable as the test wavelength was more close to the peak wavelength for rod sensitivity. With green test light, the sensitivity difference of retinal position was investigated. The rise of the color threshold was more prominant at the retinal position where rods were more densely packed. Finally, the Stiles-Crawford effect was examined with a green test light at 12° in the nasal visual field. This effect appeared for the color threshold over the whole course of dark adaptation but not for the light threshold even before the rod-cone break. It was concluded that the rod activation interferes with cone sensitivity and the interference effect becomes stronger as rods become progressively more dark adapted, and that the rod system is also acting even before the rod-cone break.
An EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell line designated as HBL-1 was established from the pleural effusion of a patient with malignant lymphoma, diffuse, large cell. Surface marker studies revealed that HBL-1 cell possessed the same phenotypes of a mature B-cell as the original lymphoma cell from pleural effusion. HBL-1 closely resembled morphologically to the original lymphoma cells observed in the lymph node biopsy and pleural effusion. Chromosome analysis revealed that HBL-1 cells showed chromosomal aberrations of a 14q + marker chromosome as the result of a translocation between chromosomes 14 and 16. Heterotransplantation to subcutaneous tissue of an athymic nude mouse has succeeded, but intraperitoneal heterotransplantation has failed. Tumors were localized in the subcutaneous tissues and no metastasis was found. This newly established cell line may facilitate immunological and oncogenic studies for human B-cell lymphomas.
Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of antiasthma drugs on cGMP levels. In vitro, theophylline (5×10-4 M) increased basal and 5-hydroxytryptamine stimulated cGMP formation by platelets (p < 0.05) while salbutamol and prednisolone produced no change. No significant differences were found in urine cGMP levels in healthy subjects, after short term treatment with theophylline, isoprenaline or prednisolone. Urinary cGMP levels were lower than normal in the majority (7/10) of asthma patients tested and in female patients this difference was significant (p < 0.05). Severity of asthma symptoms were not found to be associated with particular changes in urinary cGMP levels. Fluctuations in the cGMP levels were, however, greater (p < 0.01) in asthma patients with a more unstable respiratory condition. The differences between in vitro and in vivo results may demonstrate that β-stimulants and theophylline have different acute and chronic effects on cGMP formation, or show that in vivo these drugs primarily affect tissue enzymes that differ from those on platelets.
Secular changes in height and weight of primary (6th year grade) and junior high (3rd year grade) school children in the city of Sendai during the period of 1973 to 1987 were analyzed in comparison with the counterpart changes in Miyagi prefecture and all Japan. The regression analysis revealed that there was a linear relationship between the year of examination and the measures of height and weight both in boys and girls of primary and junior high schools. The secular gain was very steady, but the annual gain was small, i.e., about one third to one sixth of the counterpart value in 1960-1964 when the secular gain was the largest. Such reduction in secular gain is apparently common throughout the country. Rohrer's and Quetlet's indices stayed essentially unchanged throughout the 15 year study period among the school children in Sendai, in Miyagi and in Japan.
Insulin produced increases in cell number, DNA synthesis and alpha-fetoprotein secretion of a human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5. The insulin-treated cells showed a decrease in binding of 125I-insulin. The decreased binding was due to the decreased numbers as well as the low affinity constant of insulin receptor. These data suggest that insulin is a growth factor for the human hepatoma cells and that insulin receptor plays a role in the growth-promoting effect of insulin.
The development of the vasculature of the pelvic fin in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, was studied by the dye-injection method. The primitive iliac artery of the primitive iliocecal artery which originates in the dorsal aorta drains into the posterior cardinal vein. As development proceeds, the primitive iliac artery penetrates the fin anlage, and finally becomes the pelvic fin artery. The chief venous channel in the fin anlage draining into the posterior cardinal vein is the pelvic fin vein. The arterio-venous condition in the pelvic fin anlage in this animal changes successively as follows: 1) one artery and one vein, 2) two arteries and one vein, 3) two arteries and two veins. The postaxial arterial element elongates to be located in the preaxial region, and the postaxial vein is located in the postaxial region from beginning to end.
Nuclear deformity of hepatocytes was measured using two parameters, the form factor and the axial ratio, in liver biopsy specimens from 29 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH). Another 13 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH) were added as control. Nuclear deformity of hepatocytes was morphometrically confirmed to increase in AVH compared to that in CPH. This was related to the regeneration of hepatocytes.
Synaptic ribbons of rod cells of the red-eared turtle under light-dark (LD) cycle, continuous dark (DD) and continuous light (LL) were examined by electron microscopy. In the LD cycle, several stick-shaped (plateshaped, three-dimensionally) ribbons formed multilayered ribbon complexes at 1000 hr, and they turned into aggregates of rounded ribbons at 1900 hr (1 hr after light-off). In DD, stick-shaped ribbons were situated singly near presynaptic membranes. Large ribbon complexes consisting of 7-8 parallel layers, as shown in the LD cycle, were not observed. Aggregates of rounded ribbons, or club-shaped ones could not be observed. In LL, aggregates of irregular ribbon fragments were noted. None of the ribbons in this regimen showed sharp contours. Cyclic LD illumination is necessary to form multilayered ribbon complexes and rounded ribbons. Internal circadian rhythm contributes little part to the diurnal changes in the structure of the synaptic ribbons.
Body sway, the total length of the sway of the center of foot pressure (CFP) and maximum walking speed were examined with and without AFO in eight post-stroke hemiparetic patients. Without AFO, the CFP moved towards the non-affected limb and the body sway was large. Wearing AFO, the CFP shifted to the midposition and the body sway became small. Without AFO, the time to walk the prescribed distance was longer, the cadence slower and the steps shorter than with AFO. However, there was no correlation between the improvements in body sway and walking capacity. The AFO compensated only for the instability of the ankle joint but not for the dysfunction of the central nervous system after the stroke.
A cDNA clone, pHTγ1, representing human tyrosinase mRNA was isolated by screening a melanoma cDNA library with a synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to a segment of the human tyrosinase cDNA, Pmel 34 [Kwon et al. (1987) Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7473-7477]. However, there are a number of differences in the nucleotide sequence between two cDNAs, pHTγ1 and Pmel 34, particularly in the region coding for the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme (putative exon 5). We therefore cloned the genomic DNA segment carrying the exon 5 of the human tyrosinase gene by screening a human placental genomic DNA library with a cloned cDNA probe. The nucleotide sequences of human tyrosinase cDNA as well as a part of its gene were determined. Mature human tyrosinase is composed of 511 amino acids with a molecular weight of 58, 000. We provide evidence for the presence of at least two species of human tyrosinase mRNA generated by alternative splicing in human pigmented melanoma cells.
Relatively low dose treatment (150 mg/kg, once per two weeks) of a intravenous immunoglobulin (IVI) preparation has shown a beneficial effect on CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4 cell counts in two patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC). Since ARC generally progresses to AIDS with a marked reduction of CD4 cells or a marked inversion of CD4/CD8 ratio, this type of IVI treatment seems to be effective for obstructing or at least delaying the progression from ARC to AIDS.
Ultrastructural behavior of fusiform vesicles with an asymmetrical unit membrane in the rat transitional epithelium was investigated by in situ injection of gold colloidal particles and gold-labeled Ricinus communis lectin, and by section staining with the lectin. These experiments suggest that the fusiform vesicles are not formed from the luminal cell membrane by contraction of the urinary bladder, and that old luminal cell membranes are removed via multivesicular bodies.
Plasma concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were compared for young (6 to 12 month-old) and old (24 to 25 month-old) conscious female Fischer rats by means of a radioimmunoassay. Basal plasma PP concentration was not different between young and old rats, nor was PP release stimulated by cerulein in either age group. The mechanism of PP release in rats is quite different from that in other species such as dogs and humans.