The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 55 , Issue 2-3
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
  • Kietsu Igarashi
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 105-116
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Kietsu Igarashi
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 117-123
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Hiroshi Wako
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 124
    Published: 1952
    Released: November 17, 2010
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  • Hiroshi Takahagi
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 125-147
    Published: 1952
    Released: November 17, 2010
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    By summarizing the facts and data obtained from the fore-mentioned experiments:
    1. The order of erythrocytes swelling in healthy person is Na=K<Mg<Ca and being different from Hofmeister's order, and is proper only to erythrocyte.
    2. On tuberculous disease, it has been demonstrated that there is a comparative augment of Mg-swelling in the beginning of pulmonary tuberculosis, and a comparative contraction of Na-swelling and comparative augment of Mg-swelling in the serious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. By these facts, if Na-swelling turns to normal, it may be considered that it indicates an improvement of the malady.
    3. In tuberculous pleurisy, peritonitis and meningitis, the comparative contraction of Na-swelling and the comparative augment of Mgswelling was recpgnized in the critical stage of the illness, but in the patients of tuberculous pleurisy and peritonitis who are on their way to recovery, this relationship turns to normal.
    4. The order of swelling in cardiovascular disease is recognized as Na=K<Mg<Ca, which is the same as with healthy persons.
    5. The order of swelling in nephritis is Na=K=Mg<Ca, or a comparative augment of Mg-swelling.
    6. The order of swelling in anemia is Na<K=Mg<Ca, or a comparative augment of Mg-swelling and a possible minute contraction of Naswelling.
    7. The order of swelling in gastric cancer is Na=K=Mg<Ca, or a comparative augment of Mg-swelling, or it appears that there is a comparative contraction of Na-swelling.
    8. The order of swelling in bronchial asthma is Na=K=Mg<Ca. There is also a comparative augment of Mg-swelling and, as a matter of fact, there is a minute decrease of Na-swelling.
    9. The swelling in beriberi is the same in healthy persons.
    10. The order of swelling in croupous pneumonia is Na=K=Mg<Ca. Besides there is a comparative augment of Mg-swelling, and possibly there is a comparative contraction of Na-swelling.
    11. The order of swelling in typhoid fever is Na<K>Mg<Ca, and possibly there is a comparative contraction of Na-swelling.
    To sum up the facts on the above mentioned data in a few words as possible, the swelling of erythrocytes in the case of Na, K, Mg and Ga
    4 kinds of cation, have a peculiarity, i.e., having a different appearance against the swelling of tissue of liver or, others. In the case of disease, the order of swelling is varied, but the variations in the cases of K-swelling and Ca-swelling are very small: it is Mg-swelling that causes the main variation, and is Na-swelling is a secondary swelling to a Mg-swelling.
    Part of the expence of this investigation has been met by grants from the Foundation for Promotion of Scientific Research of the Education Department.
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  • Tatuzi Suzuki, Toshiyuki Ozaki
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 148
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Rai Satake
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 149-152
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Rai Satake
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 153-157
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shigenori Kameyama
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 158
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tatuzi Suzuki, Kingo Takahasi, Kahei Tamabuti
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 159-165
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    To know what a part is played by accelerated adrenaline secretion in carbon monoxide anoxia in the fluctuation of blood sugar content and of blood pressure, the present investigations were undertaken.
    Three series of experiments were carried out; (1) 3% carbon mono-oxide was inhaled in normal dogs. (2) The same was done in dogs with the demedullated suprarenals. (3) Continuous adrenaline infusion, which imitated the natural adrenaline secretion augmented by carbon monoxide was performed in dogs with the demedullated suprarenals. All experiments were carried out without narcotizing or fastening.
    After inhalation of carbon monoxide, a remarkable hyperglycemia and elevation of the blood pressure were observed in normal dogs as well as in those with the demedullated suprarenals. The magnitude of hyper-glycemia in dogs with the demedullated suprarenals was somewhat smaller than that in normal dogs. It was difficult to find any definite difference in the magnitude of blood pressure changes between the normal and the operated animals.
    From the evidence given above it may be justifiable to conclude that the augmented adrenaline secretion from the suprarenal medulla plays a small part in the hyperglycemia produced by carbon monoxide poison-ing.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Zensaku Yosizawa, Tyuiti Isikawa
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 166
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Isao Yamane
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 167-175
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) When the acetone killed cell suspension of Vi-O and Vi-R type typhoid bacilli was shaken with glucose and phosphate solution at 37'C, the cell free.Vi antigen was formed in the medium and this formation reached its maximum in 3 hours.
    2) In spite of the repetition of the shaking incubations using the same cells, the Vi activity of the cells did not decrease. The cells metab-olized glucose and inorganic phosphorus accompanying Vi formation.
    3) The O-antigen formation by means of the same method was titrated very faintly at the later stage of the incubation. It was revealed that glucose and phosphate did not participate to O-formation.
    4) Cell quantities, the optimum concentration of sugar and the suitable kind of the sugars were investigated.
    5) Glucosamine was the most active in the Vi formation.
    6) The Vi-formation was inhibited perfectly by iodoacetate and this inhibition was recovered immediately by adding pyruvate.
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  • Akira Sato, Tsuneo Arakawa
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 176
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Hiroshi Wako, Seizaburo Arai, Naoshi Sasaki, Junichi Ishikawa, Ototaka ...
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 177-184
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Hiroshi Wako, Naoshi Sakaki, Junichi Ishikawa, Ototaka Higashi
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 185-190
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Isamu Kaito, Sigemiti Tuda, Tatuo Nakazima, Tamotu Yamaguti
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 191-194
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    In azorubin S test, the total excretion in the urine has been widely accepted as the standard of disturbance. However, we consider that its functional disturbance is possibly estimated in general by the percentage excreted for two hours which was taken as one of the standard in our method.
    Moreover, we adopted the excretory ratio as another standard from the point of view that the output for the last 2 hours is slightly more as compared with that for the first in normal and we find a marked increase for the last in cases with liver damage.
    It is interesting that we found a rise of ratio in cases in which neither a delayed excretion nor an increased output for the first 2 hours was de-tected. In these cases it may be considered that a load given for the liver by the first administration causes abnormalities for its function following the second administration. It may be indicative of a latent disturbance of the liver.
    Several cases showed normal excretion for the last two hours in spite of an increased output for the first, and it may be possible that the first administration plays a part of stimulus by which its function turned to normal after the second administration.
    Further, we can perform the experiment in a shorter time as com-pared with the classical method in which the urine must be taken generally for a long time in order to observe the total excretion.
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  • Ichiro Uyeda
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 195-198
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The repeated glucose ingestion test, orally given, has been evaluated by the duodenal test. 30g. glucose was given to healthy persons and diabetics.
    By the oral administration, the hyperglycemia due to the second dose is definitely smaller compared with the first, when tested on the healthy, and the second dose is answered in the diabetics with a greater hyper-glycemia than the first, as commonly well known.
    The duodenal administration nearly annulled the smaller reaction against the second administration in healthy subjects, known as the Staub effect, and exaggerates the hyperglycemia in the diabetics more strongly than on the oral application.
    Be the glycemic effect of repeated glucose ingestion in the normal person and the diabetic properly judged, it makes clear that each kind of application yield almost quite the same outcome in both healthy person and diabetic in relation to the sugar tolerance.
    The smallness and retardation of the hyperglycemia due to the oral application, which take place in contrast to the duodenal, appear with a same magnitude in persons with tolerance, normal and lessened as well.
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  • Ichiro Uyeda
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 199-202
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Rabbits, poisoned with alloxan, were fed on either a high carbo-hydrate diet, low in fat or a high fat diet, low in carbohydrate.
    Intravenous administration of glucose in certain quantity produced a hyperglycemia there, of a similar strength and duration, irrespective of different kinds of food, or rather the high carbohydrate diet acted to moderate the alimentary hyperglycemia, though only insignificantly.
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  • Masahiko Kuroya, Nobuo Ouchi, Masanori Katsuno
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 203-207
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. The advantages of “streak plate method” for the selection and identification of the antibiotic actionmyces over many other methods lie in its sensitivity, simplicity and characteristic properties, the last of which enabled us to yield a production of the antibiotic substance or sub-stances by one and same strain of actinomyces in much more number as well as in much more amount in comparison with other methods.
    2. Three hundred sixty active strains of actinomyces were classified by their antibacterial spectra into following 4 groups:
    I. group: Inhibitory upon Gram positive, Gram negative and acid-fast organisms…………………………201 (56%) strains
    II. group: Inhibitory upon Gram positive and acid-fast organisms………………………………………………130 (36%) strains
    III. group: Inhibitory upon Gram positive organisms………………………………………………………14 (4%) strains
    IV. group: Inhibitory upon acid-fast organisms only………………………………………………………………15 (4%) strains
    The strains of each group were further divided into several subgroups.
    3. “Streak plate method, ” being called by the authors “Primary Screening, ” is a first step of our systematic investigation of antibiotic substances produced by actinomyces.
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  • Masahiko Kuroya, Nakao Ishida, Shina Kobayashi, Jiro Konno, Reiko Chid ...
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 209-217
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) Fifty-eight representative ones out of 201 strains selected by the streak plate method (“primary screening” test) and proved to be effec-tive upon Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fast bacteria, were cul-tivated on the surface of Waksman's media and the culture filtrates were tested for their activities and other biological properties by the broth dilu-tion method, by the cup method using 12 kinds of test bacteria, including E. coli, streptomycin resistant E. coli, Sta. aureus (Terashima strain), Sta. aureus 209-P and others (“secondary screening” test) and by the one-dimensional diffusion method.
    2) By the procedure mentioned above 58 strains of actinomyces were subdivided into several types, which composed of many strains, whose antibiotics were almost identical with each other. The procedure enabled us, therefore, to identify the antibiotics contained in culture filtrates of many strains.
    3) Several kinds of known and unknown antibiotics were isolated and purified in crystalline forms. They were found to belong for the most part to the streptomycin-streptothricin group. On the chemical and biological significances of each antibiotic reports will be made by each investigator elsewhere.
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  • Yutaka Tsuiki, Haruji Kamioka
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 219-225
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tatsuzi Suzuki, Toshikazu Takagaki, Tsuyoshi Aoki, Kahei Tamabuti
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 227-231
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Influence of stimulation of the nasal mucous membrane with am-monia upon the rate of adrenaline secretion was studied on non-anesthetiz-ed dogs, according to the lumber route method of Satake et al. The adrenaline content in the suprarenal vein blood determined by means of the rabbit intestine segment method.
    In some cases, in which the blood pressure elevated abruptly after the stimulation of the nasal mucous membrane without any material alteration in the heart rate, the adrenaline secretion augmented slightly or remained unaltered.
    In one case, in which the fluctuation of the blood pressure was not so remarkable, but the heart rate decreased markedly after the stimulation, an enormously augmented adrenaline secretion such as 0.6 γ per kg. per minute from one gland was observed.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Hidetake Hirata
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 233-240
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Hajime Masamune, Tugio Maehara, Hidetake Hirata
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 241-246
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Takuo Tamaki
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 247-253
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    I investigated amino acids composition of the protein from the tuberculous pus plasma in 3 cases and free amino acids in the tungstic acid filtrates of tuberculous pus plasma by a paper-chromatographic procedure.
    1) I found tuberculous pus plasma proteins do not essentially differ from usual proteins regarding the qualitative composition.
    2) In 3 cases of closed tuberculous abscess never punctured free amino acids were not detected.
    3) Free amino acids were present in the protein-free filtrates of tuber-culous pura of 5 closed abscesses often punctured before.
    4) The number of the free amino acids found there, however, far less than that of the corresponding amino acids in hot true pura. There is a striking contrast between tubercuous and non-tuberculous true pura.
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  • Tatuzi Suzuki, Toshikazu Takagaki, Tsuyoshi Aoki
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 255-258
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The adrenaline secretion rate and the blood pressure were measured in non-anesthetized dogs. Roentgen irradiation of the adrenal region was performed in a dose of 150-600 r. After irradiation the rate of adrenaline secretion and the blood pressure remained unaltered.
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  • Akira Sato
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 259-271
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The cortex of the suprarenal gland largely receives nerve supply neither from the plexus capsularis nor plexus medullaris, while the vegeta-tive elements running along the blood vessels which finally pass into the terminalreticulum by Stöhr is recognized. The gland cells, however, are not always supplied by this reticulum, but mostly rather free from its supply. Then, the mechanism of the cortical secretion will be probably based upon that the gland cells are pressed by the extension of the blood capillaries, and accordingly the intracellular granules infiltrate in the capillaries.
    The medulla is favoured with nerve elements remarkably unlike the cortex. They take their rise in the nerve bundles coming from the plexus capsularis and passing through the cortex into the medulla, as well as in the sympathetic nerve cells existing in the medulla. After forming a com-plicated, but irregular plexus, the nerve fibres separate each other. They are more or less thick and characteristic by showing the special winding and variety of thickness. Besides, they do never terminate freely, but anastomose with each other, to form a great network. This is, of course, of vegetative nature, but morphologically differs from the common ter-minalreticulum remarkably. The medullar cells are supplied by this network with a contact mode.
    The mechanism of the medullar secretion will be chiefly based upon those many secretory nerve fibres forming the network, although the ex-tension of the blood capillaries is not impossible to be supposed, too, as in the cortex.
    The nerve cells in the medulla are of sympathetic nature, because they are divided into the cells of type 1 and type 2 of Dogiel. Stöhr's club- and ring-formed bodies existing in relation to the nerve cells are seemed not to be such sensory, as Stöhr supposed, but special terminations of the short processes from the nerve cells. They will probably consist in making stronger the proper significance of the short processes as the recepting end-apparatus.
    It is thought, that sensory nerve fibres will advance into the medulla, though very few, because sensory glomerular terminations rarely can be seen.
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  • Shina Kobayashi, Jiro Sato, Nakao Ishida, Yoriko Owaki
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 273-282
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Six strains of antagonistic streptomyces of our laboratory collection were determined as streptomycin producing one by their antibacterial spectrum, and concerning with one of these strains (No. 346) designated as Str. olivaceus some taxonomic, studies were made.
    By the isolation and purification of the active principle from this culture filtrate, pure HCl-salt was obtained, showing a potency of 800 u per mg. It gave positive Sakaguchi and maltol test and a crystalline reineckate (d. p. 161-164°C).
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  • Masahiko Kuroya, Nakao Ishida, Ken Katagiri, Takehiko Shiratori, Reiko ...
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 283-288
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Fifteen strains which showed a specific activity to acid-fast bacteria only in streak plate method, were tested using several kinds of culture media on their antibiotic potency in the culture filtrates, and studied further on the nature of antibiotic substances from the point of their own antibiotic spectra, active pH and diffusibility.
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  • Masahiko Kuroya, Nakao Ishida, Ken Katagiri, Jiro Konno, Masami Kikuch ...
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 289-297
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) Five kinds of basic antagonistic substances, which resembled streptothricin in nature, were obtained in a form of hydrochloride, crystal-line helianthate and reineckate, and the identification between these sub-stances was performed.
    2) All of these substances had rather lower potencies than strepto-mycin, in a dilution titer against E. coli, while the substances No. 259 and No. 120 (Seki) were higher inhibitory against Staphylococcus (Terashima strain) than streptomycin.
    3) Six substances, including streptomycin, were arranged in the order of increasing toxicities as follows:
    -36, streptomycin, 120 (Seki), 24, 39, and 259. The substance No. 36 was able to be injected both, intravenously and intramuscularly into mice in an amount of 20mg without showing any toxic signs. In this respect, the substance No. 36 has advantages over streptomycin.
    4) The decomposition points of helianthates or reineckates of 4 streptothricin-Tike substances were found to be in the vicinities of that of streptothricin except No. 36 (Roseomycin). In reference to the other biological and chemical properties, however, the 5 substances seem quite different from streptomycin and from each other.
    5) Maltol and Sakaguchi reactions were found to be positive in streptomycin alone, while glucosamine and other sugar reactions were positive in both streptomycin and streptothricin-like 5 substances. The chemical reactions positive in streptothricin group only, were not found yet.
    6) A strain of E. coli, which was made resistant to the hydrochlorides of 4 substances (36, 20, 259, and 120) respectively was resistant to each of 5 substances and somewhat less resistant to streptomycin too, while the same strain of E. coli, which was made resistant to streptomycin, was not resistant to each of 5 substances. In this respect it seems very probable, that each of 5 substances resembles closely in their mechanisms of the anti-biotic functions.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Masahiro Maki
    1952 Volume 55 Issue 2-3 Pages 299-310
    Published: February 25, 1952
    Released: November 28, 2008
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