The poor sensory innervation of the human back skin between the 5th and the 8th thoracal spinal processes may be surmised from the peculiar histological picture of this part, which shows very sporadic growth of hairs, small terminal territory of the sensory hair nerve fibres in the hair follicle neck and a weak development of the subepidermal papillae, because, as Seto and his collaborators have established, the majority of sensory fibres in the haired skin terurinates in connection with the hairs and the minority that comes into the papillary layer is developed in proportion to the development of the papillae. In fact, the sensory fibres running into the papillar layer were very small in number, and their terminations were very simple, being represented by sharp unbranched, and in rarer cases, by bifurcated sharp endings. No intraepithelial fibres were ever found. The hairs in this region are downy, but they reach far into the deeper layer of the corium, together with the much elongated sebaceous glands. The terminal areas of the sensory hair nerve fibres, the Seto's hair neuroshields or -bubes formed between the sebaceous glands and the outer root sheathes are generally very poorly formed, and consequently the development of the sensory nerve fibres and their terminations is also extremely weak. The sensory terminations are even simpler than those in the scalp (Seto)1), but more complex than those with the downs on the eyelids (Seto2)). The terminal formation is entirely of simple plexus-like, serrate and indefinite types. The plexus-like terminations are formed by sensory fibres and their branches arranged in plexus form, and are incomparatively simpler in formation than those with cilia (Seto2)) and the downs of the pars cutanea of lip (Seto et al.3)) and even simpler than those in the scalp (Seto1)). The serrate terminations are composed of sensory fibres arranged in serration, but since these belong to the more complex type of hair nerve terminations, only a very few of them are found in the back skin. The indefinite type of termination is represented by a few rather stout sensory fibres running an irregular course, together with their branches, and shows no definite terminal formation. Being of simpler termination type, such endings are frequently found in the back skin. As described above, the back skin is very poor in sensory fibres, but interestingly enough, there were found glomerular terminations in the small artery wall in the subcutaneous tissue and the papillary layer of the back skin, a type of terminations never found in the haired skin except in the external genitals and the papilla mammae and areola mammae, though, may be, in extremely rare cases. This glomerular termination found in the small artery, but is more complex. It is represented by a capsulated oval body composed of sensory fibres running into a ground substance containing numerous cell nuclei together with a few branches and showing glomerular arrangement, and is presumably receptor apparatus connected with adjustment of blood pressure. The other corpuscular body in the papillar layer is composed of non-capsulated glomerular ending formed in the same ground substance, and is perhaps receptor apparatus for delicate stimuli. The vegetative innervation of the back skin is much the same with that of the scalp (Seto)1).
The mucous membrane of the canine nasal cavity is nearly the samewith that in man in fine structure, except that the former has no smooth muscle fibres as the latter. The nerves in this part are mostly vegetative in nature, while the sensory fibres, very small in number, end in the tunica propria in simple endings, without further entering into the epithelium. The minute structure of the canine vestibulum nasi is also similar to that in man, except that the former has no pars cutanea with vibrissae, the vestibulum in the front partly going over to the snout, partly to the haired outer skin. The mucosa of the vètibulum is divisible into the corneous part with corneous plate and the non-corneous part, as in the human vestibular mucosa part, but the development of nasal glands is much inferior in the former. In the submucosa of the vestibulum nasi in dog there are seen many sensory fibres, most of which run toward the corneous mucosa part, to end chiefly with branched endings in the papillae. More intraepithelial fibres are found than in the human counterpart, being in best development at the entrance of the vestibulum. These fibres originate partly in the branched endings in the papillae and partly in single fibres directly penetrating the epithelium. They either end unbranched or branched, are mostly smooth-surfaced and thin, but more rarely somewhat thicker, and run through or between the epithelial cells, to end sharply or sometimes in nodes in the upper layer of the epithelium. The snout in dog presumably represents the foremost part of the vestibulum. The epithelium is similar to that of the corneous mucosa part of the vestibulum, being composed of stratified flat epithelium with corneous plate and somewhat greater in height than the latter. The development of papillae is much stronger than in the vestibular corneous part and their arrangement is very regular. No nasal gland is found formed in the tunica propria of the snout. The snout is far better provided with sensory fibres than the vestibular mucosa part, apparently in proportion to the good development of papillae here. The sensory fibres mostly end in the papillae as branched endings, but in rarer cases, as capsulated end bulbs. Often enough, these endings send out intraepthelial fibres, very large in number, most of which are branched. Some of them are rather thick, though mostly they are minute in size, and generally end sharply or in nodes in the upper layer of the epithelium. The canine lip, as that in man, is composed of the cutanea part, the transitional part and the mucosa part. The transitional part is subdivided into the outer and inner zones by a shallow furrow. The outer zone occupies only a narrow space. Its epithelium is composed of a stratified flat epithelium with corneous plate and about 3 times thick as the epidermis of the cutanea part. Rather strongly developed papillae are formed beneath the epithelium. Upon going over from the outer to the inner zone, the epithelium suddenly grows in thickness, reaching 4 to 5 times that of the epithelium in the outer zone. No corneous plate is found herein, and villi are formed on the surface. The papillae here are tall and well-developed. The inner zone occupies a far larger area than the outer. Its epithelium diminishes in thickness as the mucosa part is approached, and its height becomes nearly equal to that of the outer zone upon going over to the mucosa part. In the mucosa part, no papillae are formed, unlike that in human lips. Of the mucous membrane of the cheek outside the lip mucosa, only the part corresponding to the level above the rima oris contains papillae. The sensory supply of the mucous membrane of the lips and cheeks in dog is similar to that in man, the inner zone of the transitional part, the outer zone thereof and the mucosa part being best innervated, in the order named.
Corresponding to the development of the subepithelial connective tissue and the papilla stems of the filiform papillae in the fore half of the dorsum linguae of hedgehog, far lower than that in man and even poorer than that in dog, the sensory fibres distributed in this part are further backward in development in hedgehog than in dog, many of the filiform papillae lacking sensory fibres altogether. Even in the cases when sensory fibres enter the filiform papillae, their terminal formations are always extremely simple, generally ending in sharp unbranched or simple branched terminations, except in very rare cases where ansiform terminations are found. No intraepithelial fibres are found here. The fungiform papillae in hedgehog are similar to those in dog in their formation, and the development of sensory fibres penetrating into them is also much in the same stage. The rather numerous sensory fibres here also end in most cases sharply in unbranched or in simple branched endings. Intraepithelial fibres are rarely proved in the epithelium of fungiform papillae facing the oral cavity. The development of sensory fibres related with taste-buds is also very poor, but a few intra- or ex-tragemmal fibres have been found.
1. The structure of the group carbohydrate from pig stomach mucus (prepared as already reported and purified) (Ch. I) was investigated particularly in connection with L-fucose molecules in it. 2. The group substance Ch. I was heated with acetic acid. And the material and hydrolysis products (Chs. II and III) were oxidized with periodic acid and with sodium metaperiodate. The consumption of HIO4 by Ch. I and those of NaIO4 by Chs. I, II and III and the chemical properties of Chs. I-III and of the NaIO4-oxidation product of Ch. I suggested that the original group substance (Ch. I) contains two L-fucose molecules in place of two galactose molecules as the last and last but two hexose units in the formula already put forward13) for it and further that the L-fucose molecules are bound with neighbouring acetylglucosamine molecules similar to the corresponding galactose molecules in the same formula. 3. Serological properties of the original substance and its hydrolysis and oxidation products were assayed and the meaning of L-fucose in the serological aspect was discussed (See the introductory note). The expenses of this work were defrayed by a grant from the Education Department given through the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches.
1. Pig stomach mucus was divided into four fractions including mucus-mucin of Sinokawa. The fractions contained hexosamine (glucosamine and chondrosamine altogether), galactose, L-fucose and mannose in molecular proportions almost coinciding mutually among them. 2. Three of the fractions including the mucus-mucin, which had been yielded comparatively largely, were subjected to alkaline scission at 20°C of the carbohydrate from the major part of the amino acid grouping. The preparations from the different fractions were similar in composition (They contained glucosamine, galactose and L-fucose as sugar components) and group activity as the corresponding preparation from the total mucus. 3. With other portions of the mucus-mucin were prepared the carbohydrate after alkaline treatment at different temperatures and after tryptic digestion. The substances obtained after alkaline scission at 0-3°C and after tryptic digestion possessed higher molecular weight and Group A activity than those in 2. and moreover contained chondrosamine as an additional sugar component. The substance after alkaline cleavage at 30-35°C was found to resemble those in 2. regarding composition and molecular weight, but was less group potent particularly with respect to inhibition of isoagglutination of A erythrocytes. 4. Some deductions were expressed. Through the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches was given a grant from the Education Department in aid to us. H. Masamune
1. Upon a total of 203 cases with bone and joint tuberculosis, culture test for tubercle bacilli in the urine was carried out at regular intervals over a long period of time, with the results that the bacilluria took place in 50 cases (24.6%). Cases with the bacilluria were found, at least microscopically, to accompany pyuria. 2. 32 cases with bacilluria were divided from the findings in the pyelograms into “ surgical renal tuberculosis” of 16 cases and “sub-clinical renal tuberculosis” of 16 cases. 3. Among 16 patients with surgical renal tuberculosis, four were judged as unilateral and six as bilateral by means of urological examinations, though these examinations were not performed in the remaining six cases. 4. Upon 15 of the 16 patients with subclinical renal tuberculosis (the remaining one died), observation of the occurrence of tuberculous bacilluria was continued over a period from 14 to 26 months, with the results that the urine remained constantly free from tubercle bacilli in eight, mostly negative and infrequently positive in five, and constantly negative in the remaining two patients. 5. In 18 of the 50 patients with tuberculous bacilluria an exact examination could not be made because of various reasons.
Three specimens of surgically removed tuberculous kidney with localized major lesions and with large “normal” areas of the renal parenchyma were examined by the serial section method, with the following results: 1. In the normal renal parenchyma, that is, all the parts except the renal lobe having the main lesion, there were found 58 isolated tubercles in Case 1, 10 in Case 2, and three in Case 3. Many of these tubercles were epithelioid cell tubercles or giant cell tubercles, in no cases was a proliferation of connective tissue fibers observed. 2. A proliferation of connective tissue fibers or scarring was seen at the central areas of the third and fourth conglomerate lesions in Case 1, but tuberculous granulation was detected in their surroundings.
Injecting intravenously DL-noradrenaline at the uniform rate during 5 minutes, the minimal effective dose for causing the blood pressure elevation was determined in non-anesthetized normal dogs. It was estimated to be 0.3-0.4μg. per kg. per minute. In addition, the pressor effects of L-noradrenaline, DL-noradrenaline and L-adrenaline were compared in non-anesthetized normal dogs. L-noradrenaline was double as much effective as DL-noradrenaline and 1.6-2.0 times as much active as L-adrenaline. As the pressor effect of L-noradrenaline is twice as much as that of DL-noradrenaline, the minimal effective does of L-noradrenaline for causing the elevation of the blood pressure in non-anesthetized normal dogs will be 0.15-0.2μg. per kg. per minute. My thanks are due to Prof. T. Suzuki for his helpful advice.
The present investigation was designed with the desire to know whether the active principles other than adrenaline and noradrenaline are presented in the adrenal medulla in a significant amount or not. The medullary tissue of the bovine adrenal gland was extracted with trichloracetic acid. At first, the noradrenaline and adrenaline contents were estimated chemically by means of the permanganate method reported by Suzuki and Ozaki. The adrenaline-noradrenaline mixture was then prepared so as to contain just the same percentage of noradrenaline and adrenaline as the chemical estimates of the extract. Using this mixture as the standard the activity of the extract in three biologic tests was estimated quantitatively. In five out of six specimens, the estimates obtainable by the three different methods were in every case almost similar each other. In one specimen, however, the estimate given by the blood pressure method was definitely smaller than those given by the intestine segment method and the pupil method. Thus it can not yet be concluded that the active principles of the adrenal medulla are always soley two hormones, i.e. adrenaline and noradrenaline.