As a preliminary experimental study, the activity of single units of the thalamic pulvinar nucleus was studied in cats, and it was found that some of the pulvinar neurons responded to nociceptive stimuli such as pinpricks with a needle and pinching with toothed forceps. Clinically, the destruction of the thalamic pulvinar nuclei was performed in 17 patients with chronic severe pain by the use of the stereotaxic surgical technique. Out of these 17 patients, 6 suffered from post-cerebrovascular accident, 9 from infiltration and metastasis of cancer, and 2 from atypical facial pain and trigeminal neuralgia. Complete relief of pain without appreciable sensory loss was obtained in 10 patients, and fairly good effects of pain relief in 7 patients. Transient emotional change was elicited in 12 patients, but this change disappeared 4-20 days after the operation. Thereafter these patients became normal in emotion and personality.
In three patients with homocystinuria, an intramuscular injection of vitamin Bs was done and its effect was investigated clinically and biochemically. In only one of the patients, the vitamin B6 administration brought about almost complete disappearance of urinary homocystine and an in vitro study on cystathionine synthetase activity of the liver revealed that the enzyme activity was activated when an excess of pyridoxal phosphate was added to the assay system. In the remaining two patients with homocystinuria, no beneficial effect was ob-served clinically and biochemically by treatment with pyridoxal phosphate. In one of them an in vitro study of the enzyme assay of the liver was done, showing that the enzyme activity was not influenced by addition of an excess of pyridoxal phosphate to the assay system. These findings suggest that there are two types of homocystinuria, one being vitamin Bs dependent and the other not dependent on vitamin B6.
The yield of wax D fraction from P6 (Scotochromogen) as described by Aebi et al. was as low as 0.3%. The acid hydrolysate of wax D from P6 yielded mannose and galactose as sugar constituents, but no arabinose. Wax D from P6 with melting point at 40°C contained also muramic acid. It showed remarkable adjuvant activity in an amount of lOμg as judged by corneal test.
Responses of the dog urinary bladder and its vascular bed to various coin-pounds administered into the caudal vesical arteries were investigated under blood perfusion at a constant rate. TEA, physostigmine, phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, angiotensin II, lys-vasopressin, oxytocin and ergotamine caused a contraction of the bladder and constriction of the vesical vascular bed. Acetylcholine, bethanechol, carbachol, TMA, lobeline, nicotine, DMPP, neostigmine, histamine, bradykinin, eledoisin, kallikrein, ATP, KCl and morphine produced a contraction of the bladder and dilation of the vesical vascular bed. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine and tyramine caused a relaxation of the bladder and vasoconstriction. Only isoprenaline produced a, relaxation of the bladder and vasodilation. Ephedrine and methoxamine constricted the vesical vascular bed but exerted no effect on the bladder itself. Aminophylline, dipyridamole, hydralazine, nitroglycerin, papaverine, adenosine, AMP, ADP, UMP, UDP, UTP, DPN, TPN, procaine and tetrodotoxin dilated the vesical vascular bed with-out affecting the bladder. These results indicate that the vesical vascular bed has pharmacological characteristics of its own.
Thyroxin-binding capacity and concentration of TBPA (thyroxin-binding pre-albumin) were investigated with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in hyper- and hypothyroid patients before and after therapy, and in pregnant women before and after parturition. Binding capacity of TBG (thyroxin-binding globulin), free thy-roxin in plasma and other parameters of thyroid functions were also measured in these conditions. Endogenous thyroxin decreased both the binding capacity and concentration of TBPA as did endogenous estrogen. In contrast, endogenous thyroxin decreased and endogenous estrogen increased the binding capacity of TBG. Positive correlation was found between the binding capacity and concentra-tion of TBPA. Consequently, it was assumed that endogenous thyroxin decreased and estrogen increased the concentration of TBG.
Splenic venous constriction alone or in combination with transient clamping of the splenic artery was applied to adult dogs, and resultant changes in splenic venous pressure, portal pressure and splenic weight were examined at various intervals. Measurements of splenic blood flow were also made on the spleen 50 days after ischemia. These procedures failed to produce splenomegaly, although increased splenic venous pressure was observed in some eases, which indicated that portal hypertension did not always cause splenomegaly. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in blood How in the spleen after transient ischemia, suggesting the importance of splenic arterial factors in the development of portal hypertension.
Histological changes produced in the spleen of adult dogs by disturbed blood flow were described. Constriction of the splenic vein did not cause fibrosis of tile splenic cord even after a long period. On the other hand, clamping of splenic artery produced thickening and proliferation of reticulin fibers of the pulp cord. When venous constriction was applied in addition to arterial clamping, a relative increase and dilatation of the splenic sinus were observed. These changes gave a histological feature simulating that of the Banti spleen, but there was no absolute increase in splenic pulp. Consequently, it was not concluded that splenomegaly equivalent to the Banti spleen could be produced by this experimental proce-dure.
Histologic examination of 115 surgical specimens of gastric cancer irradiated preoperatively in a total tumor dose of 600-4, 000 R of 60Co revealed that various radiation-induced changes were essentially the slime as documented on uterine and breast cancers. The histologies were classified into Grades 0 to III according to the severity and extent of radiation damage, of which Grades II and III were judged to endorse effective irradiation. Such effective changes were identified in 72% of primary tumors of the 115 cases, and the rate of effectiveness increased as the total tumor dose increased (28% for less than 2, 000 R, 74% for 2, 000 R and 88% for more than 2, 000 R). The effect varied with the histologic type of carcinoma, well differentiated adenocarcinomas being least radiosensitive. Irradiation induced also a favorable connective tissue reaction, especially at the advancing front of the tumor in the gastric serosal coat. Lymph node metastases generally had less radiation sensitivity than the primary tumor. Considering also untoward effects of irradiation, which were often manifest at higher doses, a total tumor dose of 2, 000 R was proposed as the level of clinical choice for preoperative ir-radiation of gastric cancer.