Endplate potential can be regarded as one of the indications of the transmitter output in the nerve terminal. By observing the pattern of successive e. p. p. evoked by tetanic stimulation of the frog nerve under various conditions, the report on the state of nerve terminal concerning the quantity of transmitter released was given by Wakabayashi and Iwasaki in this jounal. In the present report the characteristic effect of a metabolic inhibitor: 2-4 DNP on e. p. p. pattern is presented, and the mode of action of this drug different from other inhibitors or excess potasium is discussed. This drug reduces e. p. p. size but increases m. e. p. p. frequency as reported by Kraatz and Trautwein. Here the marked facilitation followed by steep depression showing a bell pattern was observed. The train of e. p. p. decreased in size by every repetition of tetaniza-tion. It indicates the exhaustion of available transmitter, and really long time was necessary to recover the original pattern. The bell pattern was characteristic of 2-4 DNP, and the action of other inhibitors, Ca++ deficiency or Mg++ addition did not bring about such an effect. From this, the mode of action of DNP cannot be explained only by the inhibition of oxydative trans-phosphyrolyation or reduced output of transmitter. On the other hand the Ach sensitivity was found unchanged in DNP muscle by measuring the depolariza-tion. In fact, m. e. p. p. in DNP muscle showed increase in frequency or burst at the certain decreased level of resting potential. Therefore, the site of action of DNP may not be postsynaptic and some specific inhibition of synthesis or supply of transmitter is suggested.
The kidneys of 50 patients with chronic pyelonephritis after injuries of the spinal cord were histologically examined by needle biopsy. The majority of the patients was under 40 years of age and possible disturbances of histological findings by lesions of vascular origin could effectively be avoided. Focal inflam-matory reactions characteristic for pyelonephritis were observed only in 38%, although all the patients had permanent bacteriuria and clinical signs of urinary infection. However, diffuse fibrous sclerosis of interstitial tissues was histometri-cally confirmed in all the examined cases and was regarded to be of diagnostic importance. Increase in the quantity of interstitial tissues was progressive with the duration of pyelonephritis and could be correlated to lowered ability of urine concentration in these patients. Arterial lesions were observed in none of the cases, excepting a single case with amylodiosis, nor was any evidence obtained to support the view that chronic pyelonephritis could cause arterial hypertension.
Noninflammatory massive calcification in the unilateral adrenal gland was confirmed in three cases, and infarction and extensive hemorrhage were prominent in etiology as usual cases in the literature. Infraction was also responsible for local-ized calcification and ossification in a functioning cortical adenoma which had myelolipomatous lesions as a usual complication. The first description of calcifica-tion in the accessory adrenal in the genital region was made of two cases with deposition of numerous calcareous bodies within the fetal zone. The lesions were ascribed to involution of the fetal zone and was regarded to be followed by retrogressive changes of the accessory adrenal gland itself.
In lightly anesthetized cats splanchnic nerve stimulation was effective to activate the vagus nerve reflexly. Such effect was hardly seen in somatic nerve stimulation except for the state of systemic strychninization. The A gamma-delta fibers of the splanchnic nerve were responsible for the vagal reflex. The reflex discharges, appearing in the vagi of both sides independently of the side of peripheral stimulation, were mainly conducted to the recurrent laryngeal branch, though some activity could be traced in the broncho-visceral branch, too. Using dual shocks of varying shock-intervals the excitability cycle of the reflex was determined. The reflex inhibition was observed by activating the somatic nerves. This was explained, at least partly, as due to sensory block at the spinal level. The phenomenon of post-tetanic potentiation could be demonstrated by using threshold stimulation. Effects of central nervous stimulation upon the reflex were examined; the inhibitory points were found in the brainstem reticular formation and the hypothalamus while the facilitation was obtained from some restricted points of the brainstem and the cortical surface. The limbic system showed no apparent effects upon the reflex.
An infant was presented in whom lactosuria and vomiting occurred shortly after birth when fed on a lactose-containing diet and both of them disappeared completely when fed on a lactose-free diet. Abnormal activity of lactase was not demonstrated in the intestinal mucosa, epithelial cells of buccal mucous mem-brane and hepatic cells of this infant. A possibility is, therefore, suggested that lactose intolerance w th lactosuria and vomiting as prominent features developes in the absence of a defect in lactase activity of the intestinal mucosa, and that a disorder included under the term of ‘lactose-intolerance’ should be divided into two subgroups (lactose intolerance with lactosuria and lactose intolerance without lactosuria) from view of clinical and biochemical points. This is the first report of lactose intolerance in Japan.
Our view on the pathogenesis of Banti's syndrome was presented on the basis of a series of clincial and pathological observations. First, an infection or other noxious stimuli arouse simultaneous responses of the spleen and the liver, resulting in splenitis and hepatitis. If hepatitis on this occasion is strong enough to cause fibrosis of the liver and, consequently, obliteration of intra-hepatic portal branches, the portal pressure is considerably increased and the increased pressure gradually transforms the splenitic spleen into the typical Banti spleen. In such a process, the enlarged spleen exerts an adverse effect to the liver and a vicious circle is thus formed to aggravate the condition. Evidence for this hypothesis was shown in this communication.
Comparisons were made of muscle spindle structure between phasic and tonic muscles stained by the gold chloride method. The most significant difference was in the ring diameter of the sensory nerve terminals wrapped around the nuclear bags. In tibialis anterior it was largest, in gastrocnemius intermediate, and in soleus smallest. This order corresponds to the contraction time, tibialis anterior being the fastest and soleus the slowest of these muscles. Since the nuclear bag fiber is responsible for the phasic component of muscle spindle discharge, and a large ring diameter of its sensory nerve terminals would be more phasic than a small one, the discharge of spindles in tibialis anterior should be more phasic than that from soleus during an identical rapid stretch.
In the geographic distribution of the mortality from cerebrovascular lesions in Tohoku area, the north-eastern part of the main island, which shows the highest mortality all over Japan, Pacific rocky coast fishing districts are lower than inland farm districts. Three villages representing these districts - an inland farm village, a farm village with sandy coast, and a rocky coast fishing village, each has a population over 3, 000 - are investigated on blood pressure level, diets and some kind of blood contents. Inhabitants in the fishing village have the lowest blood pressure level and consume less rice but more other foods than in farm villages. Consequently, the latter is inferior to the former in intake of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamins of B complex and C. From these results, calcium- and vitamin-deficiency is epidemiologically suspected as an important cause of high incidence of cerebrovasuclar lesions in Japan.