The heart of prawn, Penaeus japonicus Bate, is basically a single chambered globular sac. The cardiac muscle bands form a fine and irregular, three dimensional network. The cytoplasm of the muscle cells is occupied by many glycogen granules, myofibrils and mitochondria. The sarcotubular system of the heart muscle consists of three components; the sarco-plasmic reticulum, transverse tubules formed by invagination of the sarcolemma, and longitudinal tubules connecting adjacent transverse tubules. At the H or A-H zone level, fine side branches arise from the longitudinal tubules to form dyads or triads with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. When adjacent muscle cells attach end-to-end to each other, they form a structure homologous to the intercalated disc in vertebrates. The neuron somas of the local system for pacemaker are concentrated in the medial nerve trunk on the dorsal inner aspect of heart. Axons from these cells extend into the myocardium to terminate in fine branches. At the contact area between muscle cell and axon terminal, the apposed plasma membranes partly increase in electron density. The terminals contain many synaptic vesicles and are surrounded by laminated infoldings of the plasma membrane of muscle cell.
(1) The separation procedure of adenosine from plasma using paper chromatography described by Berne (Amer. J. Physiol. 1963, 204, 317-322) is analysed for the recovery rate and for the sources of loss. When adenosine-8-14C is added to plasma, the recovery rate of total 14C from the paper chromatogram is 87.7±5.4% (mean±S. D.). This rate is not influenced by the concentration of non-radioactive adenosine. About 40% of adenosine is broken down during the procedure, even when the plasma is precooled at 0°C. (2) The recovery rate of radioactivity is 75.6±3.2% in blood cells deproteinized with perchloric acid. (3) The incubation study of the radioactive adenosine with whole arterial blood reveals that the recovered 14C is 9.29±1.41% in the adenosine spot derived from the plasma. (4) Theoretical estimation of the total amount of adenosine released from an organ is offered with the consideration of the amounts broken down in plasma and uptaken into blood cells, and of the amount re-uptaken into the organ.
To study the effectiveness of serum transfusion in hemophiliacs, in vitro experiments and in vivo trials were carried out. In in vitro experiments, addition of one volume of serum shortened consisently the kaolin added partial thromboplastin time (kaolin PTT) of both hemophilia A and B plasmas. In the former, the shortening was the same as in the control plasma, but the elevation of AHG level was not seen in the mixture, while in the latter the shortening was more marked than in the control plasma and the PTC level was elevated. In in vivo studies, 80 ml of serum was transfused in each of the cases of hemophilia A and B. In the former, kaolin PTT was shortened from 119.0 to 92.0 sec., whereas the level of AHG was not changed. In the latter, kaolin PTT was shortened from 262.0 to 151.0 see, and the PTC level was elevated from less than 1% normal to 2.8% normal. Serum transfusion is thought to be an effective hemostatic procedure in hemophilia A and especially in hemophilia B.
The clot promoting activity and activities of clotting factors in lyophilized serum were the same with those in fresh serum. The clot promoting activity of lyophilized serum to control plasma and PTC deficient plasma was stable at room temperature for eight months at least. For the purpose to measure the clot promoting activity in serum, an assay for “clot promoting serum factor (s), (CPSF)” was done. There was a linear relationship between the kaolin PTT of normal plasma mixed with serum and the log of serum concentration as measured 1/10 diluted serum containing 100% CPSF activity. Compared with fresh serum, lyophilized serum is much easier to use and to transport, with less danger of contamination and better toleration for a long storage for emergency use, and it is considered to be more beneficial in practical use for serum transfusion in hemostatic procedure.
The effects of xylitol and glucose infused upon nitrogen, water and electrolyte metabolism were comparatively studied in rabbits. During 10 days' fasting, a daily dosis of 40ml/kg of the following solutions was infused for 4 hours. The animals, which were infused with a multiple balanced electrolyte solution, lost 36% of body weight during the fasting, accompanied by net losses of 8 g nitrogen, 160ml water (exclud-ing insensible water loss), 9 mEq sodium, 28 mEq potassium, 2.5 mEq magnesium and 0.2 mEq calcium per kg body weight. The animals were emaciated at the terminal stage and two of six animals died. The animals infused with a 5% glucose solution with balanced electrolyte composition lost 30% of body weight and one of six animals died. The urinary excretions of nitrogen, sodium and calcium in these animals were significantly less than those in animals receiving the electrolyte solution without carbohydrate. More pronounced sparing effects for nitrogen, water, sodium and potassium were found with a 5% xylitol solution with balanced electrolyte composition, while the losses of magnesium and calcium were rather promoted. The decrease of body weight in this group was 24% and none of six animals died. The similar results were also obtained by the infusion of other xylitol solutions with or without electrolyte composition. The sparing effects of glucose were manifested exclusively at the early stage of the fasting, whereas those of xylitol were more pronounced at the late stage when the starvation progressed.
Male albino rats of the Donryu strain weighing 120 g were fed high-fat (40%) atherogenic diets with two casein levels for 16 weeks. Either hydrogenated kapok oil or butter fat was used in the diet. One % saline or tap water was offered as drinking water. The rats fed high casein (31%) diets showed remarkably high growth, and their serum cholesterol levels were about one half of those of low casein (11%) groups. One % saline increased slightly the serum cholesterol levels. Fatty lesions of the arteries in the heart, kidneys, aortae, and renal glomeruli of rats fed high casein diets were milder compared to those of low casein groups, and all the lesions except for those of renal glomeruli were potentiated by the saline administration. The lesions of coronary arteries, cardiac muscles, and glomeruli of the hydrogenated oil group were severer than those of the butter fat group although serum cholesterol level of the former was somewhat lower than the latter. However, atheromatous lesion of aortae was severer in the butter fat group. No intimal lesion of the arteries was observed in kidneys and the lipids in media were seen along adventitia.
Three lines of transplantable chorionic tumors have been established. They were numbered m-673, m-731 and m-786. At present they are transplanted over 25 generations and in this paper the morphology of both m-673 and m-731 was described. Biological behavior and morphological characteristics of parent tumors resembled those of the human choriocarcinoma. Histological appearance of these two lines were similar to each other and with the advance of generations of transplantation, PAS positive substance in the cytoplasm gradually decreased. The specific enzyme, 3β-ol-dehydrogenase-isomerase system of normal rat placenta on this tumor (m-673) was detected.
In order to establish experimental conditions for the radioisotope penogram, various experiments were conducted with adult dogs. When 131I-human serum albumin is used as a radioactive tracer, a dose of 10 μCi/10-15 kg body weight appears to be adequate. A collimator specially designed is necessary for this test. The stimulation of pelvic nerves resulted in a marked rise in the penogram curve, but the stimulation of the central stump of this nerve after sectioning caused no effect. Accordingly, it is expected that when erection nerves are organically injured in man, even intense stimulation from the erection center does not cause a rise in the penogram curve. The radioisotope penogram was shown experimentally to be useful in differentiating the organic and the functional impotences.
The radioisotope penogram, which measures changes of blood flow through the penis, was developed and applied as a measure of objective differentiation between functional and organic impotence. In the present study, changes in the radio-isotope penogram curve were studied following visual sexual Stimulation. In patients with functional impotence, the penogram curve rose in response to visual sexual stimulation. However in cases with an organic defect in the nervous system which participates in erection, including the upper erection center, there was no change in the penogram curve despite that the sexual excitation occurred in response to visual sexual stimulation. Therefore, this method was found to be useful for the differential diagnosis.
To estimate the survival time after receiving injury, microspectrophotometry of the red cells in the bleeding area was investigated. In the absorption curves of the red cells, the peaks at the wave lengths of about 530 m& mu; and 410 m& mu; became indistinct, and the angle formed by the absorption cruve between the peaks at 410 my and 275 m& mu; and the horizontal axis tended to become larger with the lapse of time after bleeding. From these changes of the absorption curves, the survival time after receiving injury seems to be estimated more exactly by the microspectrophotometry of an amount of red cells in the bleeding area in injured tissue.
Total a mount of adenosine and/or AMP released from the skeletal muscle is calculated to be 273& plusmn; 121, 381& plusmn;116, 1, 034& plusmn;170 and 829& plusmn;89 (mean& plusmn;S. E.) nmoles/min/100 g at rest, after 3-min ischemia, during rhythmical contractions (1/2 see), and after 3-min ischemic contractions, respectively.
Microspectrophotometric method, a newly devised technique for estimating the survival time after receiving injury, was applied to medicolegal practice, and this method was estimated to be able to apply to the cases, of which the survival time after receiving injury was between several days and about three weeks.