Cats, with normal suprarenals, with medulli-suprarenals removed and with splanchnic nerves cut, were experimented on. The left upper cervical sympathetic ganglion was removed about a week before, and the ciliary ganglion on the side one or two days before. Asphyxiation by mechanically covering the nose and mouth, muscular exercise with a treadmill, cooling by means of introducing cold water into stomach with a stomach tube, sensory stimulation of the moist pinna with induction shock, chemical irritation of the nasal mucosa with ammonia, and emotional excitement by a barking dog were applied. All the agencies were capable of exciting the paradoxical pupil dilatation, the asphyxia was most potent and the barking dog was the weakest agent. Experimental conditions for confronting the cat and dog were certainly inadequate to excite animals vigorously. Demedullation of the suprarenal capsulae and cutting the splanchnic nerves interfere largely with the magnitude of the paradoxical pupil dilatation through these agencies; a barking dog was now incapable of causing any paradox, while asphyxiation and cooling were always attended by a small paradoxical dilatation. With the other agencies the paradox failed to occur infrequently. Such data apparently depend upon the potency of eliciting the paradox reaction.§
Die aus der Zwiebel der Fritillaria verticillata, Wild. gewonnenen Alkaloide, das Verticin, das Verticillin and das Fritillarin üben auf Kaninchen im Wesen gleiche, aber an Intensitat verschiedene Wirkungen aus. Bei dem Zentralnervensystem bewirken sie zuerst in einer gewissen Reihenfolge Lähmungen der verschiedenen Koordinationszentren im Kleinhirn, sodass im Anfangsstadium der Vergiftung verschiedene Anomalien der Körperhaltung nacheinander erscheinen, obgleich die übrigen Gebiete desselben Systems irn späteren Stadium in Lähmung versetzt werden. Die Atembewegungen werden durch die kleinste wirksame Menge von Verticin and Verticillin immer, aber durch die von Fritillarin nur selten beschleunigt, während alle these Alkaloide in grossen Dosen gleichfalls die Atembewegungen abschwächen oder sogar aufheben können. Der Blutdruck wird durch die kleinste wirksame Menge des Verticins and Verticillins immer, aber durch die des Fritillarins nur selten gesteigert, durch grosse Dosen dieser Alkaloide dagegen herabgesetzt. Die Blutdrucksteigerung hängt von einer gesteigerten Arbeitsleistung des Herzens infolge der Erregung der sympathischen Nervenenden ab, während die Blutdruckherabsetzung von einer herabgesetzten Arbeitsleistung des Herzens infolge Lähmung seiner motorischen Elemente herrührt. Am Darm bewirken all these Alkaloide in kleinen Mengen durch Erregung der sympatischen Nervenenden eine Tonussenkung and Bewegungshemmung, in grossen dagegen durch Erregung der kontraktilen Elemente eine Tonuszunahme. Am Uterus führen sie in kleinen Mengen durch Erregung der sympathischen Nervenenden and in grossen ausserdem noch durch die der kontraktilen Elemente eine Tonussteigerung herbei.
1. Healthy b-classed rabbits fed on tofukara show a decreased blood platelet count on an administration of vitamin B. 2. Healthy b-classed rabbits fed on tofukara show an increased blood platelet count when they begin to be fed on B-avitaminotic food, and as the B-avitaminotic stage is more advanced, the count becomes more remarkable. 3. But when B-avitaminotic feeding is long continued or when animals draw near, or are in, the paralytic stage, the count decreases. 4. When the B-avitamintic feeding is continued for along time, a daily administration of vitamin B in a fairly large amount causes the increased count to become decreased again. This concides with my clinical experience reported in the 60th Report on the Peroxidase Reaction. But a long continued use of the vitamin will not save animals from an ultimate increase of the count and from ensuing death. 5. In this case a combined use of vitamin B and yakriton will make the general state remarkably better, and the count notably smaller, until animals will be quite safe from death.
The difference of the blood pictures between controls and rabbits with ammonia injection which were both inoculated with 3 mgrms. of tubercle bacilli (human type) intraocularly, was as follows:- 1. Total white cell count. Control animals showed a remarkable leucocytosis or a leucopenia. Rabbits with a leucocytosis survived longer than those with a leucopenia. Contrarily the rabbits with ammonia-injection showed a leucopenia and died in a few weeks. 2. Lymphatic and myeloid cells. In the case of controls a lymphopenia and a myelocytosis were seen; these changes were more remarkable at the end of this experiment. On the contrary, the rabbits with ammonia-injection showed a shift to the right and the shift was obviously of a degenerative nature. 3. Monocytes, eosinophiles and basophiles. Control animals showed a remarkable monocytosis, but in the case of animals with ammonia injection only a slight monocytosis occurred. Eosinophiles decreased in both cases and disappeared entirely before the death. Basophiles showed a slight increase in both cases.
Several kinds of food-stuffs used in this country, with beef, bread and milk, which were well tested especially by Russian investigators, were given to the dogs provided with the stomach pouch of Pavlov in the amount corresponding to one third of the basal metabolism per diem r_??_ the fuel value. Four dogs were used. Dog M secreted much, Dogs Neo and N little, and Dog B intermediately, generally speaking. It is needless to say that the size of the small stomach might have a great bearing upon the amount of secretion, and the integrity of the secretory nervous fibres also. Our dogs were all well nourished. That likes and dislikes have also a significant bearing upon the scale of secretion is visible in the present investigations. For example, Dog B secreted incomparatively largely on milk feeding, and Dogs Neo and N on feeding with flatfish. Among the food-stuffs tested, flesh and fishes are most potent to cause the gastric secretion, and there was materially no difference in this respect between beef and various kinds of fish, generally speaking. In some cases fish acted more potently, though not so excessively. And the secreting period is long. Mode of cooking might be looked upon to have some influence in some cases, but never definitely. Fermented soy-beans, holding much protein, acts upon the gastric secretion in a similar potency to flesh and fish. Bread and boiled rice act most weakly in eliciting the gastric secretion. The present investigations and those quoted in the book of Babkin, etc. show that the large figure on feeding with 200 grms. bread two times the amount applied in the present investigation, such as of Chishin, quoted in several text books of physiology, might be justifiably taken as rather infrequently occurring. The secretory ability of milk is intermediate; the duration of gastric secretion due to milk, in the amount here given, continued 3-4 hours, most shortly. On vegetable food-stuffs the gastric secretion continued so, or somewhat longer. Fried bean-curd, some stuffs from wheat or rice causes also only a small secretion of the gastric juice. With the same food-stuffs and their same amount, the staying time in the stomach was measured by means of the simple gastric fistula. No material difference was found definitely between the period covering the gastric secretion and the staying time, excepting boiled rice and rice gruel. They stay longer than they evoke the gastric secretion. By way of precaution it maybe said that these comparisons are not exact, because there are large variations from case to case, especially concerning the secretion period.