Sodium salt of dextran sulfate ester (MDS-Kowa, Kowa Co., Japan) was administered intravenously to 4 euthyroid subjects, 7 patients with hyperthyroidism and 5 patients with hypothyroidism. Serum FFA rose to the level 4-6 times higher than the preinjection level 15min after the intravenous injection. At the same time, elutable fraction (EF) of T4, free T4, and binding capacity and concentration of TBPA increased, while binding capaty of TBG decreased. Addition of dextran sulfate to serum in vitro caused no change in binding capacity of TBG and EF of T4. Addition of palmitic acid to serum in vitro with increasing concentration resulted in a gradual decrease in the distribution of 131I-T4 to TBG and binding capacity of TBG, while EF of T4 gradually increased. Intravenous injection of dextran sulfate ester following the prior injection of protamine sulfate in dog caused a mild rise in serum FFA, but failed to increase the EF of T4. When reverse-flow paper electrophoresis was carried out after addition of 14C-palmitic acid to sera of normal and TBG-deficient subjects, it was confirmed that palmitic acid bound to albumin and TBG fraction. These results suggest that dextran sulfate ester raises serum FFA first, then the increased FFA combines with TBP at least with TBG, thus competing for binding sites with T4, and released T4 in turn increases free T4 level in the serum.
Deiodination of 131I-T3 and 131I-T4 in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates obtained from normal and thyroidectomized rats was studied before and after the administration of l-T3 and l-T4. Deiodination of 131I-T3 in the liver and spleen homogenates was decelerated by the administration of l-T3 or l-T4 both in normal and thyroidectomized rats. Deiodination of 131I-T3 and 131I-T4 in kidney homogenates was accelerated by the administration of l-T3 or l-T4 both in normal and thyroidectomized rats. These results suggest that difference of metabolism between T3 and T4 would exist in thyroid disorders.
Excluding the influence of changing urine flow by ligating the renal vein, canine electroureterographic studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of autonomic drugs upon the ureteral function. Intra-aortic administration of epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, some amounts of acetylcholine, and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) accelerated ureteral peristalsis. In the preadministration of phentolamine, epinephrine prolonged discharge intervals, and the response was suggestive of β effect. Phentolamine, propranolol, neostigmine, atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin caused no changes in electroureterograms.
The human mast cells in the allergic nasal mucosa contained many granules with various features. On the basis of electron microscopic observations, we have classified these granules into two groups: “normal” and “altered”. The former group consisted of granules which showed comparable structure to those in the normal environment. They contained electron dense, homogeneous material or less dense amorphous material. Many of them were surrounded only by a unit membrane, but sometimes a very thin envelope of the matrix was discernible immediately inside the unit membrane. The latter group comprised granules with marked ultrastructural changes. The swelling of the granules showing a clear halo formation around the matrix was a common feature. The internal substance obviously lost its electron density and became fibrillar or granular in appearance. These “altered” granules were fairly predominant in number as compared with those with “normal” structure. The ultrastructural changes found in the present study was quite smilar to those observed in the experimental degranulation studies caused by compound 48/80. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expect that mast cell granules of the allergic nasal mucosa are also released from the cytoplasm, responding to the antigenantibody reaction.
The occurrence of remarkable activity of phospholipase A2 was found in fresh homogenate of pyloric caeca of starfish, mainly using lecithin labeled with 3H-palmitic acid at α-position as substrate. The effects of incubation time, enzyme (protein) concentration, divalent cations, and EDTA on the hydrolysis of substrate were investigated. The activity was markedly inhibited with EDTA and was dependent on divalent cations such as Ca++. Sodium deoxycholate and certain organic solvents such as benzene, diethylether etc. also activated the enzyme. The optimal pH was about 8. The occurrence of low activity of lyso-phospholipase was also found in fresh homogenate but little lipase activity was detected.
CHIDA, N., HIRONO, H., NISHIMURA, Y. and ARAKAWA, Ts., Choline Phosphokinase, Phosphorylcholine Cytidyltransferase and CDP-choline-1, 2-diglyceride Cholinephosphotransferase Activity in Developing Rat Lung. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1973, 110 (3), 273-282-Incorporation of choline-methyl-14C into phosphorylcholine, CDP-choline, and phosphatidylcholine by lung tissue of developing rats was studied. Choline phosphokinase, phosphorylcholine cytidyltransferase, and CDP-choline: 1, 2-diglyceride choline phosphotransferase were determined in the lung tissue of developing rats. Results indicated that phosphorylcholine cytidyltransferase was the rate-limiting enzyme in the reactions-choline→phosphoryl-choline→CDP-choline→phosphatidylcholine
A simple method is described for the determination of free total metanephrine (metanephrine plus normetanephrine) in urine. The method includes direct oxidation of 3-methoxyamine metabolites of catecholamine to vanillin in alkaline urine and extraction of formed vanillin with toluene which is followed by spectrophotometrical assay. The method has been proved its reliability and simplicity for screening of patients with catecholamine-producing tumors.
99mTc complex of tripolyphosphate and stannous chloride has been evaluated as a bone seeking agent. This compound is prepared simply using “kit” method. Animal studies show that bone/muscle, bone/blood and bone/liver ratio are high enough to delineate the skeletal systems. This compound is promptly excreted in the urine. Various bone diseases are delineated by rectilinear scanning. A blood pool background is high at the end of two hours after injection. The optimal time for scanning is about three to six hours after injection. The image with 99mTc-STPP is comparable to that with 87mSr.
Serial tests for the HB antigen were carried out in an institution for the mentally retarded. During the study the frequency of the antigen carrier was found to be 23%, of which one third had a persistent antigenemia. The antigenemia was found more frequently in the younger (under 10 years of age) than in the older. In contrast, the incidence of the antibody carrier was higher in the older. The antigen was acquired in 2 newly admitted patients 3 and 4 months after institutionalization. The HB antigen was detected by means of RIA in saliva obtained from 5 patients who were positive for the antigen in serum. The salivary antigen may be an important source for spreading the antigen in a closed environment.
Conscious dogs were injected intravenously with 1.0mg/kg of pilocarpine or 0.3mg/kg of nicotine. Adrenal venous effluent was collected before and after the injection and analyzed for adrenaline and noradrenaline fluorimetrically. After the injection of pilocarpine a marked increase in adrenaline secretion with an inconsistent and slight increase in noradrenaline secretion was observed. Following the injection of nicotine the adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion increased markedly, the increase in the former being predominant.
Conscious dogs were infused intravenously with glucose solution over 10 minutes. The samples of the adrenal venous blood were collected before and after the infusion of glucose and analyzed differentially for adrenaline and noradrenaline by the use of fluorimetric method. The blood glucose level was elevated by glucose infusion from 69-92mg/100 ml to 270-338mg/100 ml and then subsided gradually to the pre-infusion level. However, no definite changes in adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion were observed after the infusion of glucose.
Despite distinctly different clinical phenotypes, enzymatic variations in GM1-gangliosidosis type 1, type 2 and new type of mucolipidosis could not be detected in pH activity curves or in starch-gel electrophoresis.