A marked reticulocyte response following intraperitoneal injections of histidine monohydrochloride was observed in rats which were fed on a folate-free diet immediately after weaning for a period of 20 days or more. This finding was taken as an evidence for mobilization of folate stored in the liver into blood stream following histidine injection.
The activities of NADPH-dependent oxidative demethylation of amino-pyrine and other methyl compounds in the liver microsomes from dystrophic mice were found to be about 30% higher than those of the normal mice. Consumption of reduced pyridine nucleotides during the demethylation reactions was also significantly larger in the dystrophic mouse system than in the normal mouse system. The synergistic effect of further addition of NADH on the oxidative demethylation in the reaction system with NADPH, however, was not significant in either the normal or the dystrophic mouse system. The activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and lipid peroxidation were also higher by about 30% in the dystrophic mouse than in the normal mouse, but the contents of cytochrome P-450 and phospholipids in the liver microsomes from normal and dystrophic mice were not appreciably different. The results suggest the possibility that the progressive muscular dystrophy may involve abnormal features in not only muscle but also liver and other tissues.
A 22-year-old female with cyclic neutropenia was studied. Her bone marrow cells showed high colony-forming activity in soft agar through the cycle, though there were slight fluctuations in the number and the shape of colonies. On the other hand, the peak of urinary colony-stimulating activity (CSA) occurred at the neutropenic stage. The dialyzed serum showed two peaks of CSA, i. e., at the peak and the valley of the neutrophil count, although the undialyzed serum showed only one peak at the neutropenic stage. It is suggested on the basis of these data that humoral factors may play a role in maintaining the neutrophil cycle.
The effects of inhibitors of DNA synthesis and mitosis and of protein synthesis on mitogenic factor production by lymph node cells from guinea pigs sensitized to tuberculin was studied. All inhibitors used in this study were added to the medium at the beginning of culture. Cytosine arabinoside, vinblastine and mitomycin-C reduced markedly the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA, but had no effect on the production of mitogenic factor. Mitomycin-C at higher concentrations, however, induced the partial reduction of mitogenic factor production. On the other hand, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of protein synthesis, suppressed markedly the production of mitogenic factor. These results indicate that mitogenic factor production requires protein synthesis, but is independent of DNA synthesis.
Oxisuran, 2-[(methylsulfinyl) acetyl] pyridine suppressed allogeneic skin graft rejection in rats. In PHA responses and one way mixed lymphocyte culture, suppression of cell-mediated immunity was indicated. However, little inhibition of PFCs was observed with Oxisuran, and unlike Azathioprine or Neocarzinostatin, Oxisuran did not concomitantly suppress antibody-producing system in rats. These data suggest that selective suppression of cell-mediated immunological responses by Oxisuran is possible in rats, and Oxisuran may be a better immunosuppressant for clinical organ transplantation.
In 7 open-chest anesthetized mongrel dogs the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 20 sec. Myocardial reactive hyperemia was recorded during air and oxygen breathings. The excess blood flow during the reactive hyperemia was smaller and the duration of the reactive hyperemia was shorter during oxygen breathing than during air breathing. It is suggested that the reduction of oxygen demand during oxygen breathing is a possible reason for the decreased reactive hyperemia and oxygen administration is beneficial in relieving myocardial ischemia.
Ethanol-1-14C method for the measurement of intrahepatic shunted blood flow was compared with the method of continuous infusion of D-galactose-1-14C. In controls, in chronic hepatitis, and in hepatic cirrhosis, per cent intrahepatic shunt measured by the ethanol-1-14C method was about a half or one-third of that measured by the D-galactose-1-14C method. Study of radioactivity-dye con-centration ratio of the blood sampled from the inferior vena cava showed that per cent intrahepatic shunt was underestimated by the ethanol-1-14C method because of permeability of ethanol-1-14C through the capillaries. In patients with hepatic carcinoma, in whom the carcinomatous tissue was supplied mainly by the hepatic artery, there was no significant difference in per cent intrahepatic shunt between both methods.
Mercury in cigarettes of domestic and foreign products was measured by Magos' method, and the sample of a domestic brand was burned by a smoking machine and the smoke was collected for the measurement of mercury. In tobacco leaf and paper, only inorganic mercury was found in both domestic and foreign products. Its amount in tobacco leaf and paper of a piece of cigarette was about 60 ng in domestic products and about 30 ng in foreign products. By burning, the unit length of a cigarette released about 5-7 ng of mercury into smoke.
Eighteen obese inpatients with insulin resistance revealed by i. v. insulin test and expressed in various grades of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia were examined for plasma lipid levels. A significant positive correlation was found to be present between the plasma triglyceride (TG) level and the insulin response to glucose load. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the insulin secretory response, the plasma cholesterol level and the relative body weight contributed to the level of plasma TG. No difference was found in the grades of insulin resistance between patients with and without elevated TG. The ratio of sum of plasma insulin values to that of blood glucose values during glucose tolerance test was markedly increased in patients with elevated TG. The patients with relatively blunted insulin response and impaired glucose tolerance curves showed only slight hypertriglyceridemia. Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia in obesity seems to be more closely correlated with plasma insulin level, and therefore, with insulin action rather than insulin resistance.
Serum al-antichymotrypsin (α1-ACT) of the patient with rheumatoid arthritis was studied by means of single radial immunodiffusion method. There was a significant elevation of the α1-ACT concentration in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and positive relationships were observed between the concentrations of α1-ACT and of other glycoproteins such as α1-acid glycoprotein and α1-antitrypsin in individual patients, and between C-reactive protein (CRP) rates and the α1-ACT concentrations in individual specimens. These facts suggest that α1-ACT belongs to a group of acute phase proteins like α1-antitrypsin or CRP. An inverse proportional correlation was revealed between α1-ACT and fibrinolytic activity. No influences were observed on the α1-ACT concentration, activity index or articular index by the oral administra-tion of αchymotrypsin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
A case of so-called criss-cross heart is presented. The right atrium drained to the left-sided morphologic right ventricle, from which the aorta originated anteriorly and leftward. The left atrium drained to the right-sided morphologic left ventricle, from which the pulmonary artery originated posteriorly and rightward. These angiographic findings are morphogenetically interpreted as a clockwise rotation of approximate 90° looking toward the base (from the inferior view) of d-bulboventricular loop following the truncal septation.
Two cases of extremely rare type of tricuspid atresia are presented. Both possessed left-sided tricuspid atresia, situs solitus of viscera and atria, 1-bulboventricular loop and 1-transposition of the great arteries. These anomalies are typical tricuspid atresia with 1-transpositions. The importance of bulboventricular loop in tricuspid atresia is emphasized because the atretic tricuspid valve is right-sided in the heart with solitus and d-loop, and is left-sided in the heart with solitus and 1-loop.
Changes in serum LH and FSH were measured following injection of synthetic tetrapeptide (Glu-Tyr-Arg-Trp-NH2) or synthetic LH-RH into the femoral vein of oophorectomized rats. A considerable secretion of LH occurred after injection of synthetic tetrapeptide although its LH-releasing activity was less prominent than that observed after injection of LH-RH. No appreciable FSH-releasing activity was noted following injection of the tetrapeptide. A significant rise of LH and an observable, but extremely modest, rise of FSH with an indistinct peak were noted after single injection of synthetic LH-RH.