Histometrical analyses were performed to estimate the medial thickness of the pulmonary and renal arteries in 35 autopsy cases of complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Twenty-one autopsy cases of ventricular septal defect (VSD) and 33 autopsy cases of normal cardiovascular systems were also examined for comparative analysis. The medial thickness of renal arteries was not influenced by age and remained unchanged throughout life. However, there were significant differences in medial thickness among TGA, VSD and normal cases. Normal and VSD cases showed higher value of medial thickness than TGA cases. The results suggest retarded development of the arterial walls in TGA. A positive correlation was observed between medial thickness and blood pressure in both the pulmonary and renal arterial systems in TGA and VSD. One of the most important findings in the comparative analysis of TGA and VSD was that the media of TGA was more remarkably attenuated than that of VSD at the same blood pressure level in both the pulmonary and renal arterial systems. The results suggest an underdevelopment of arterial media in pulmonary and systemic circulation in TGA and a possible suppression of medial hypertrophy in TGA by some unknown factors.
A serum component with suppressive activity on human lymphocyte responses to phytohemagglutinin was examined in pregnancy serum. No correlation could be found between the elevated level of alpha-2-AP glycoprotein and the immunosuppressive activity. The active constituent was isolated by ultracentrifugation, salt fractionation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The immunosuppressive activity was found to be associated with alpha-globulin which consisted of neither lipoprotein nor alpha-2-AP glycoprotein. In terms of its antigenicity, the active fraction was found to be a mixture of 5 components.
Ultrasonography was applied to 140 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with histopathological confirmation of masses by either surgical or autopsy methods during the past nine years in the National Children's Hospital and the Hospital of Toho University. The masses were classified into three ultrasonic patterns; solid, cystic, and mixed. A solid pattern was obtained in 47 cases, a cystic pattern in 67, and a mixed pattern in 26. Of the cases of the solid pattern, a benign tumor was seen in 32 per cent, and a malignant tumor in 68 per cent. Each 50 per cent of the cases of the mixed pattern had malignant or benign tumors. All the cases of the cystic pattern had benign tumors. Ultrasonics was used as a supplement to routine clinical studies.
The changes in electrical activities following olfactory bulbectomy were investigated in rats with chronically implanted electrodes, in comparison with those induced by septal lesions. Electroencephalogram (EEG) of the amygdala changed to low voltage fast waves immediately after bilateral olfactory bulbectomy, while EEG of the neocortex gradually showed an arousal pattern consisted of low voltage fast waves, and hippocampal theta waves were markedly synchronized during the period of a week or so after bulbectomy accompanied with the appearance of characteristic hyperemotionality. No change was observed in EEG of the septum, hypothalamus or the midbrain reticular formation. Following unilateral olfactory bulbectomy, no behavioral changes occurred, but EEG of the ipsilateral amygdala showed low voltage fast activity without causing any EEG changes in other brain structures. Bilateral septal lesions immediately caused hyperreactivity in rats which gradually disappeared during the course of a week or two after the surgery. The hippocampal theta activity completely disappeared and EEG turned to low voltage fast waves immediately after septal lesions, but no significant EEG change was observed in the amygdala or the neocortex. This change in hippocampal EEG continued for a long time even after hyperreactivity disappeared.
Experimental immunotherapy with a mixture of allogeneic tumor cells and BCG cell-wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) was carried out against established autochthonous fibrosarcomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The inhibitory effect on growth in the early stage, tumor-size up to 2 cm in diameter, was significantly observed. No significant difference, however, was shown as compared with the effect of treatment with allogeneic tumor cells alone. That is to say, a more effective inhibition of growth due to the addition of BCG-CWS was not demonstrated.
The supernatant fraction (Fr. S) obtained by ten-fold dilution of the 0.5M LaCl3-extract of bovine costal cartilage was fractionated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography, followed by gel filtration on Sepharose 4B. The resulting five subfractions were characterized by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes before and after digestion with pronase, α-amylase, and chondroitinase AC, together with analytical data. The results showed that Fr. S contained a large quantity of glycogen (Fr. 1), three sialoglycoproteins (Frs. 2, 3 and 4-1), hyaluronic acid (Fr. 4-1), a small molecular size proteoglycan consisting of chondroitin sulfates and keratan sulfate (Fr. 4-2), and small quantities of collagen-like protein. The components in the correspond-ing subfractions of Fr. S from non-calcified (NCC) and calcified (CC) portions of the costal cartilage were similar. It is indicated that consumption of glycogen is remarkable on calcification.
In order to evaluate the effect of handgrip on left ventricular dynamics, cineventriculography was performed in 16 patients with heart disease and 5 normal subjects at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. No patient had ventriculographic evidence of asynergy or valve regurgitation. During exercise, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) insignificantly increased, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) decreased, and hence stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) rose in the normal group, while in the patient group a similar change in LVEDV was associated with increased LVESV, resulting in unchanged SV and decreased EF. It is notable that during exercise LVEDV increased in both groups, despite a shortened diastolic filling period. Mean velocity of fiber shortening (mean VCF) increased in the normal group and remained unchanged in the patient group. The changes in mean VCF, during exercise were correlated with the alterations in SV and EF (r=0.46, p<0.05 and r=0.90, p<0.001, respectively). These data signify that an increased afterload induced by handgrip leads to an enhanced left ventricular myocardial contraction in addition to an increase in preload in the normal group, while the Frank-Starling mechanism is mainly utilized in the patient group.
In order to investigate the etiology of idiopathic edema, clinical findings and endocrinological abnormalities were analyzed in twenty-seven patients, and the following results were obtained. An easy occurrence of subcutaneous bleeding and paositive Rumpel-Leede phenomenon were observed in the majority of the patients. ADH, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration in the patients did not show abnormalities following water loading in the supine position when compared with normal controls. But the results obtained in the present study suggested that they might contribute to water and sodium retention in the upright position. In the patients, plasma prolactin levels were not decreased, but rather increased and urinary excretion of kallikrein and kinin was reduced significantly after water loading in the upright position. Thus, prolactin and urinary kallikrein-kinin system might also contribute to water and sodium retention in idiopathic edema, directly or indirectly through the augmentation of the action of ADH and of aldosterone. It was concluded that the increased vascular permeability and endocrinological polyfactors play a role, in a cooperative fashion, in the mechanism of this disease.
In 117 cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer subjected to various types of operation, insulin- and histamine-stimulated secretion of gastric pepsin and acid was investigated at follow-up. Secretory responses of gastric pepsin to the stimulation with insulin and histamine were different from those of gastric acid. Insulin was confirmed to have a greater ability than histamine to stimulate gastric pepsin secretion. In the cases of vagotomy with pyloroplasty and those of vagotomy with hemigastrectomy, the average reduction rates of peak pepsin output were 80% and 92%, respectively, after insulin-stimulation, and 52% and 74% after histamine-stimulation. In view of gastric pepsin secretion, pylorus-preserving gastrectomy and segmental gastrectomy are more physiological than distal gastrectomy.
The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in rat liver lyso-somes increased in vitro by 400 nm ultraviolet light irradiation in the presence of hematoporphyrin (HP), but no changes were observed without HP. The MDA formation under the presence of HP was prevented by addition of vitamin E as antioxidant.
Elevated urinary methylmercury excretion was observed in a patient poisoned with mercury vapor. When he was treated with n-penicillamine, the urinary methylmercury excretion increased significantly in both cases of twice-repeated 4-day peroral administration, while the urinary total mercury excretion increased significantly only in the first series of administration.
A high skin protoporphyrin level (4.36 μ/g wet weight) was detected in a 14-year-old girl with erythropoietic protoporphyria who died of protoporphyrin hepatopathy cirrhosis. Excess protoporphyrin was detected in the skin by our assay technique which was assumed to cause severe skin photosensitivity.
The relationship between Candida growth in the upper or lower intestinal tract and the occurrence of systemic candidiasis was examined in mice. A significant increase in Candida growth was observed in the upper intestinal tract of mice in which systemic candidiasis was induced by combined X-ray irradiation and dexamethasone treatment.