ARAKAWA, Ts., SAITO, T., MINAGAWA, A., SHIOJI, R., KOBAYASHI, M., CHIKAOKA, H. and KATSUSHIMA, N. Higher Excretion of Urinary Bound AminoAcids in Infants: Probably Related to Protein-Anabolic Effect of Growth Hormone. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 1-10-Concentrations of bound amino acids in urine were found to be markedly higher in infants than in children over 4 years of age. And it was also found that bound amino acid levels in plasma were increased in infants and young children than in adults. Urinary excretion of bound amino acids was increased in a hypopituitary dwarf after one day of intramuscular injection of human growth hormone. A possibility was advanced that an increased excretion of bound amino acids of the overflow type observed in infants was due to active protein biosynthesis stimulated by growth hormone of which plasma levels have been reported to be high in infancy.
MIYAKAWA, H., OKUDA, K., SHIMA, K., AYA, K. and NAKAHAMA, H. Nociceptive and Non-nociceptive Responses of Neurons in the Medial SubthalamicRegion and Lateral Hypothalamic Area of Cats and Their Relationship to the Effectsof Morphine and Pentazocine. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 11-19 Single neuronal activity was recorded extracellularly from the Ford's field (FH), subthalamic region immediately rostral to the FH (STRF), rostral end of the medial subthalamic region (RE) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the anesthetized cats. Many of the FH, RE and LHA neurons were excited by nociceptive stimulation such as pinching the skin with serrated forceps and/or intra-arterial injection of bradykinin. These nociceptive neurons were also excited by non-nociceptive stimulation such as tap of deep tissues, bending hairs with an air-puff and/or joint rotation. On the other hand, inhibition by both nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli was seen in and around the rostral end of the FH including STRF. Their receptive fields were large. After intravenous administration of either morphine or pentazocine, most nociceptive neurons became unresponsive to nociceptive stimuli, although they were driven by non-nociceptive stimuli. This suggests that morphine and pentazocine have a specific antinociceptive action on these nociceptive neurons. Intravenous naloxone reversed the antinociceptive action of morphine, but failed to reduce the action of pentazocine. This differentiation has an important functional significance.
KANEDA, H., MURATA, T., MATSUMOTO, J., MAETA, T., SHITOMI, K. and HARUYAMA, T. Effect of Captopril on Blood Pressure and Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Hypertensive Patients on Hemodialysis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 21-31-We have performed a long-term (6-16 months) administration of captopril in 6 hypertensive patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. They were divided into two groups according to the basal renin levels (pretreatment plasma renin activity, PRA), that is, high PRA group (3 patients) and normal PRA group (3 patients). 1) In the high PRA group efficient reduction of blood pressure was obtained by small doses of captopril. In the normal PRA group, however, slight or no pressure reduction was observed. Appropriate initial dose was 10-15mg/day and maintenance one was 75mg/day in high PRA group. 2) Hemodialysis potentiated the hypotensive action of captopril in the high PRA group through massive removal of sodium and water. 3) In the normal PRA group PRA was regulated by serum sodium concentration and the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was by serum potassium concentration, but in the high PRA group PRA and PAC were mainly regulated by captopril itself. 4) In one patient an adverse reaction consisting of strong bradycardia, dyspnea, chest pain and cold sweat was observed soon after the start of captopril medication. From these results, it was concluded that captopril was an excellent drug for the control of severe hypertension in dialysed patients having a high basal renin level.
YAMAKI, S. Significance of Lung Biopsy in Determining Surgical Indicationin Cases of Congenital Cardiac Anomalies with Pulmonary Hypertension. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 33-39-Correlation between the grade of pulmonary arterial change and pulmonary arterial pressure was studied in 60 patients with congenital cardiac anomalies associated with pulmonary hypertension. Of the 60, 45 specimens of pulmonary arteries were obtained by autopsy and 15 by biopsy. Pulmonary arterial pressure was correlated with the products of the medial thickness and intimal lesions of small pulmonary arteries both in the autopsy and in the biopsy specimens. Also, medial thickness and intimal lesions were independently correlated to the pulmonary arterial pressure. However, the regression equation was not identical among the kinds of diseases, although significant correlation was found between the degree of intimal lesions and pulmonary arterial pressure. Medial hypertrophy was reversible after corrective surgery, but intimal lesions were irreversible except for cellular proliferation. Therefore, to determine the indication for corrective surgery, it should be emphasized that intimal change of the small pulmonary arteries should be carefully evaluated. Since the degree of intimal lesions is not accurately diagnosed from hemodynamic parameters alone, diagnosis of intimal lesions by lung biopsy is indispensable to determine the possibility of corrective surgery in the congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary hypertension.
HIGASHI, A., IKEDA, T., UEHARA, I. and MATSUDA, I. Zinc and CopperContents in Breast Milk of Japanese Women. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 41-47-Longitudinal studies of zinc and copper contents of breast milk were performed in 65 Japanese mothers during their lactation period until 5 months postpartum. They experienced no problems during pregnancy and at delivery. All women had full term healthy infants. Forty-five were multiparous and 20 primiparous. The highest level of zinc content was found in the colostrum, and subsequently the levels declined (p<0.005), as lactation progressed. Copper content was stable during the first month of lactation, and then declined gradually (p<0.005). Both mineral levels in breast milk ranged with great variance among the subjects at any stages of lactation. Significantly lower zinc level (p<0.01) and higher copper level (p<0.005) were found in the serum of lactating women three months postpartum, when compared with non-lactating control women. Factors including lactation history, age of lactating women, serum levels and contents of zinc and copper in the hair did not affect the contents of these trace minerals in the breast milk.
FUKASAWA, H. A Generalization of the Atherosclerotic Index and Its Application.Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 49-58-A generalized atherosclerotic index with n types of lesions I(n) was defined in the form of an inner product of the profile vector α and the weight vector β as: I(n)=100(α, β), α=1/A(a0, a1, …, an) and β=1/wn(0, w1, …, wn), where A is the total area examined, ai(0≤I≤n) is the area of the i-th type of lesion, the subscript 0 refers to the normal portion, and wi is the weight to be given to the corresponding lesion, with only the restriction 0≤w1≤…≤wn. It was further extended to a composite index of m arterial systems in matrix multiplication form as I(m, n)=100 PQR, P and R being weight matrices and Q an observation matrix. As an example of its application, results obtained from our autopsy series were shown. In a total of 288 cases classified into four disease groups, the cerebral infarction group was highest in the severity of aortic atherosclerosis both in the customary index and in a modified index in which relatively small weight was given to the complicated lesion. The order of the other three groups was more clearly represented in the latter index than in the former.-atherosclerotic index; generalized index; atherosclerosis of aorta; cerebrovascular diseases
SHIMIZU, T., NUNOKI, K. and TAIRA, N. Further Evidence for PostganglionicActions of Prostaglandin F2α and Histamine in the Submandibular Gland of the Dog. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 59-63-To test the possibility that prostaglandin F2α and histamine might produce salivary and vasodilator responses by stimulation of preganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers in the submandibular gland the responses to the two substances of chronically decentralized glands were compared with those of acutely decentralized ones in anesthetized dogs. No significant differences in responses to either prostaglandin F2α or histamine were noted between chronically decentralized glands and acutely decentralized ones. Thus, it was concluded that prostaglandin F2α and histamine only stimulate parasympathetic postganglionic neurons within the gland and neither of the responses is related to non-cholinergic ganglionic transmission.
SUZUKI, T., the late HAYASHI, A. and TAKANO, S. Effects of Prostaglandins onThrombus Formation in Mesenteric Arterioles of Rats. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 65-71-Effects of locally applied prostaglandins on platelet thrombus formation in the mesenteric arterioles of rats were studied in vivo. Prostaglandin (PG) I2 and PGE1, which were reported to be powerful inhibitors of blood platelet aggregation, prevented the thrombus formation, whereas PGE2, which was reported, in low concentrations, to enhance platelet aggregation, showed a tendency to promote the thrombus formation. PGA1, PGA2 or PGF2α had no effect. PGD2 had a very weak inhibitory effect. As prostaglandins tested had no effect on the diameter of mesenteric arterioles, it is assumed that the effectiveness of PGI2 and PGE1 in preventing thrombus formation is due mainly to their powerful inhibiting effects on platelet aggregation.
YAMAMOTO, K., YAMAMOTO, Y., HATTORI, H. and SAMORI, T. Effects ofRoutes of Administration on the Cyanide Concentration Distribution in the VariousOrgans of Cyanide-Intoxicated Rats. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1) 73-78 -Cyanide concentrations in various organs (the blood, liver, lung, spleen and brain) of the rats intoxicated by ingestion or inhalation were determined with a slightly modified microdiffusion method. In the inhalation experiment, a rat in an exposure chamber inhaled HCN produced by addition of NaCN solution to H2SO4. For each route two different doses were used. The time to death was shorter when doses were larger. Cyanide concentrations were higher in per os group than in inhalation group in all the organs tested. The concentration in the liver was most sensitive to the route of administration; it was the highest among the organs tested after per os administration, but low after inhalation. In the lung it was significantly higher than that of the blood when cyanide was inhaled. It was concluded that, when it is necessary to determine whether cyanide was ingested or inhaled, at least the lung and liver must be analyzed for cyanide contents in addition to the blood and stomach content.
FUKUOKA, Y., SEINO, J., OKUDA, T and TACHIBANA, T. Development of aHemolytic Assay for Mouse Complement Components in Sera and the Variation ofTheir Levels with Age. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 79-90-The hemolytic activity of C1, C4, C2 and C3-9 of mouse complement in serum could be measured by using each intermediate cells with guinea pig or human complement components. C3 was assayed by immune adherence. Sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) sensitized with rabbit IgM antibody produced no or feeble lysis in the assay for C4 and C2, whereas SRBC sensitized with IgG antibody or unfractionated antiserum did significant lysis. Using these assays, the activity of each component in sera of several H-2 congenic strains was examined. The age-dependent changes of each component levels in BALB/c mice of both sexes were also examined. The differences in levels of C4 and C2 in sera from several strains were not significant in both sexes, while the levels of C3-9 were higher in males than in females. The levels of each component increased with age. The levels of C4 activity and the Ss protein showed good correlation in males but not in females. The correlation between the levels of C3-9 activity and the MuBI protein was detected in both sexes.
SAITO, K. and KUMAGAI, K. Effects of Amine Substances on Susceptibility ofCells to Agglutination by Concanavalin A and on Paracrystal Formation by Vinblastinin Untransformed 3T3 Cells. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 91-99-The effects of a secondary amine (ketamine), tertiary amines (dibucaine, lidocaine, marcaine, propanidid, diazepam and chlorpromazine) and a quarternary amine (tetraethylammonium bromide, TEA) on mouse 3T3 cell agglutination by concanavalin A (Con A), on patch formation of Con A receptors on the cell surface, and on paracrystal formation by vinblastin in cytoplasm were studied. These amines enhanced the cell agglutination at low concentrations of Con A, as did the mixture of colchicine and cytochalasin B. Ca++, applied extracellularly, inhibited the effects of these amines on cell agglutination by Con A. The patch formation of Con A receptors on the cell surface as revealed by fluoresceinated Con A was enhanced by these amines. Ketamine, dibucaine and TEA inhibited the paracrystal formation in cytoplasm, as did Ca++ ionophores such as A-23187 and X-537-A. These results suggest that the amines tested affect the fluidity of Con A receptors by impairment of cell membrane structural proteins and result in the increase of the susceptibility of cells to agglutination by Con A.
HANEW, K., SASAKI, A., SATO, S., MURATA, K., FUKUI, M., KOH, K., SHIMIZU, Y., MURAKAMI, O. and YOSHINAGA, K. The Autonomy of ProlactinSecretion in Patients with Prolactin Producing Tumor. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 101-107-To examine the responsiveness of prolactin (PRL) secretion in patients with PRL-producing tumor (PRL-noma), TRH (500μg), arginine (0.5g/kg, b. wt.), and sulpiride (100mg) were administered to 13 patients with PRL-noma. Seven of these patients responded to TRH or other agents with an increase in their plasma PRL levels of 50% or more above the basal values (categorized as Group I). The remaining six patients, however, showed no response to any of these agents (categorized as Group II). After the administration of L-dopa (500mg, p.o.), Group I patients showed significantly greater decreases in plasma PRL (-68.9±6.6%) from the basal value than did Group II (-37.4±8.6%; p<0.02). The mean basal PRL levels were higher in Group II than in Group I, although these differences failed to reach statistical significance. Moreover, therewere no differences in age, sellar volume, or the presence of bitemporal hemianopsia between the two groups of patients. It is concluded that there are two patterns of PRL-secretory responses to pharmacological stimuli in patients with PRL-noma. The differences between the two patterns might be characterized by the properties of the lactotroph cells themselves rather than by the relation of these cells to the hypothalamus.
OGASAWARA, T. and TASAKI, K. A Circadian Locomotor Rhythm in the GiantLand Snail, Achatina fulica. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 109-110-A circadian rhythm in the locomotor behavior of the giant land snail, Achatinafulica, was studied by a running wheel method in a 24hr light-dark cycle (LD 12:12) and also in constant dim light. The locomotor rhythm could be entrained to the LD cycle, and the entrained rhythm was characterized by the bulk of activity in the dark period, the major activity appearing in the first half of the dark period. In constant dim light the locomotor rhythm free-ran with a period of about 24hr.
TANNO, Y., NISHIOKA, K. and TAKISHIMA, T. Carcinoembryonic Antigen inSputum. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 111-112-Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in sputum from patients with lung cancers (15), other malignancies (7) and non-malignant pulmonary diseases (30) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The mean value±S.E. (ng/ml) of CEA levels in sputum was 3, 682±1, 648, 630±473 and 444±102, respectively. There was a significant difference in CEA levels between lung cancers and benign pulmonary diseases (p<0.01), while no correlation between the serum levels and sputum levels was found. These observations led us to conclude that assay of CEA in sputum appears to be a useful simple test for the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary neoplasms.
MIZUNO, K., YAGINUMA, K., HASHIMOTO, S., TOKI, T., NAKAMURA, I. and FUKUCHI, S. Acute Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Serum Angiotensin-ConvertingEnzyme Activity in Normal Man. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 137 (1), 113-114 -The acute effect of cigarette smoking on serum antiotensin-converting enzyme activity was evaluated in 6 healthy subjects consisting of 4 non-smokers and 2 habitual smokers. Ciagrette smoking resulted in rapid increases in serum converting enzyme activity in 5 of 6 subjects within 5min, and the converting enzyme activity remained above the control value at 30min. The increase in the enzyme activity of non-smokers was higher than that of habitual smokers at any time when the enzyme activity was determined. It is therefore suggested that cigarette smoke (or smoking) can cause the secretion of angiotensin-converting enzyme from the pulmonary endothelial cell, in which the enzyme may be produced, to the systemic circulation. It is also speculated that the increase in the enzyme activity may contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular changes associated with cigarette smoking.