Neuronal spike trains are regarded as stochastic point processes. To estimate the order and the value of Markov properties of the adjacent interspike interval sequences, we have proposed new statistics “dependency” _??_m for discrete variable and “simplified dependency” _??_m for continuous variable in the stationary point processes, and _??_m(t) for discrete variable in the non-stationary point processes. With the use of _??_m it was shown that the maintained activity of the neurons of the mesencephalic reticular formation and red nucleus (tonic neuron groups) revealed higher order and larger values of Markov properties than that of the optic tract (OT) fibers and lateral geniculate nucleus neurons (phasic neuron groups) in cats. By employing _??_m(t) it was shown that the value of the 1st order Markov properties of OT spike trains induced by the light spot presentation became to increase earlier in Y-fibers than in X-fibers; and that the value for Y-fibers returned to the maintained level in a short time, while the maximum value for X-fibers continued up to the light-off. The differentiation is considered to have a decided functional significance. From these results it is suggested that dependency code represents the stability of neuronal functions.
Gastrectomy was performed in 626 out of 692 operated cases of gastric cancer. Histologic examination of the resected specimens revealed that the cancer was confined to the mucosal (m) or submueosal layer (sm) in 256 cases, advanced to the muscularis propria (pm) or subserosal layer (ss) in 110, and to the serosa (se) or the surrounding organs (si, sei) in 260. 238 (93%) of m and sm cases were free from lymphnode metastasis. Lymphnode metastasis was noted in 51 (46%) of pm and ss cases. In 229 se cases, 177 (77%) were positive in lymphnode metastasis and 108 (47%) showed metastasis in n2 and n3 degree. Adjuvant chemotherapy fairly improved the postoperative survival rate of the advanced cases with lymphnode metastasis, serosal involvement, or lymph and blood vessel involvement of gastric cancer.
With the aim of obtaining effective concentration of antitumor agents in the regional lymph nodes of the stomach, 1) local injection of antitumor agent, 2) ligation of the gastric veins and 3) combined use of dextran sulphate (DS) and urokinase (UK) were performed, and it was examined whether these methods were useful for treatment and prevention of metastases from the view point of tissue level of the agents in the lymph nodes. The subjects examined were 120 cases of gastric Cancer, in which concentration-dependent antitumor agents such as Mitomycin C (MMC) or Cyclophosphamide (CPA) were injected into the gastric wall adjacent to the carcinoma just after laparotomy. After extirpation of the regional lymph nodes and resection of the stomach, the concentration of antitumor agents was measured. The concentration of agents in the regional lymph nodes after local injection of 500 mg of CPA was approximately two times higher in both direct and indirect values than those after intravenous injection. By a local injection of 10 mg of MMC, effective concentration of MMC was detected in the groups 1 and 2 regional lymph nodes of the stomach as well as at the surgical margins of resection. Although the concentration of agents in the lymph nodes containing metastatic carcinoma was lower than that in the normal nodes, ligation of the efferent gastric veins caused 1.5-2.5 times increase in concentration. Moreover, combined use of DS and UK with antitumor agents before the surgical operation increased the tissue level of antitumor agents regardless of metastases in the lymph nodes.
An autopsy case of angio-immunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia (Frizzera et al. 1974) or immunoblastic lymphadenopathy (Lukes and Tindle 1975) is reported. Clinical pictures and morphologic characteristics of affected organs were typical of this disease. In spite of combination chemotherapy, the patient took a rapid fatal course. Post-mortem examinations disclosed involvement of the lymph nodes, liver, lungs, kidneys and skin. Cellular infiltrates in the kidney were more monomorphous, suggesting the potential for the development of immunoblastic sarcoma. Electron microscopies of the affected lymph nodes revealed the proliferation of immunoblasts characterized by moderate amount of clear cytoplasm with abundant polyribosomes and by large nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Undulated tubules associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and giant mitochondria with the centrally placed cristae were observed in occasional immunoblasts. Cytoplasmic fragments of immunoblasts and filamentous material among the cells were considered to correspond to the amorphous intercellular material seen in histologic sections.
Effect of starvation on tissue radioactivity of 14C-DDT was examined in mice 8 days after its single injection. Animals were completely fasted and given barium sulfate by gastric intubation for the last 3 days. The findings obtained from starved mice were as follows: 1) loss of body weight, 2) decrease in organ weight of epididymal fat and liver, 3) reduction in lipid content of whole body as well as of epididymal fat, 4) a marked elevation of DDT levels in tissues except muscle, and 5) occasional neurotoxic signs characterized by tremors and convulsions. Excretion of DDT-related metabolites was not changed by starvation. Analysis of metabolic products of 14C-DDT using thin-layer radiochromatography revealed that there was little or no significant difference between control and starved mice in the metabolic pattern of DDT-related compounds in the tissues and excreta. It was assumed that DDT-ingested animals with dietary energy restriction had a subsequent risk of toxicity resulted from redistribution of DDT, but not from alteration in excretion or metabolism.
Growth behavior in vitro of ascites tumor cells was examined for a model study on the invasion in cancer. For this purpose three-dimensional agar culture was used. Seventeen strains of tumor cells were used. These tumor cells grow floating in ascites as single isolated cells (single cell strain) or forming different per cent of cell aggregates (island type strain). Plating efficiencies of tumor cells were variable, depending on the kinds of tumor strain. It was noted that FM3A cells of the cultured cell line showed almost 100% plating efficiency irrespective of the number of cells inoculated. Tumor cells formed 3 types of colony; that is, solid type, mushroom-shaped and disk-shaped colony. These three types of colony were observed in all the tumor strains tested, depending on the position in agar layer. The cells of single cell strains showed the tendency to form loose colonies in which cell contact was loose and cells were easy to liberate from the periphery of the colony. The cells of island type strains showed the tendency to form packed colonies in which cell contact was tight. Growth behavior of cells of ascites tumor in agar medium showed good correlation with that in susceptible animals.
The difference in the antigenic determinant size of DNA for sera from patients with SLE and rabbit anti-DNA sera were investigated. Haptenic inhibition studies were carried out by measuring the inhibition of [3H]DNA-antibody binding by three different types of oligonucleotides which were prepared from formic acid-diphenylamine digests, hydrazinolyzed digests and pancreatic DNase digests, respectively. Oligonucleotides from DNase I digests showed potent inhibitory activity with both SLE sera and rabbit sera. However, the inhibitory activities of purine and pyrimidine oligonucleotides were more potent for SLE sera than for rabbit anti-DNA sera. The determinant size estimated for rabbit sera was in the range of tetra- to heptanueleotide, while in SLE sera it was in the range of di- and trinucleotide.
Ten mongrel dogs were used to assess regional myocardial function in response to electrical pacing from the inflow (RVI), outflow tracts (RVO), and apex (RVA) of the right ventricle and apex (LVA) and lateral wall (LVL) of the left ventricle. Straingauge arches were sutured to the epicardial segments of the apical and lateral walls of the left ventricle and their mechanical shortening was measured during right atrial (RA) and during ventricular pacing. The onset of shortening of two segments did not differ significantly in RA and RVI pacing, while the stimulation of RVA and LVA caused the initial contraction of the apical segment, and RVO and LVL pacing caused that of the lateral segment; i. e. RVA and RVO pacing resulted in left ventricular asynchrony of contraction similar to LVA and LVL pacing, respectively. Asynchrony of contraction was not accompanied by a uniform change in peak tension of regional myocardial segments, but pre-ejection tension rose and ejection tension fell at the pacing site. The reduction in mean aortic pressure inversely correlated with the prolongation of the time interval between the onset of shortening of two segments during left ventricular pacing. The decrease in cardiac performance observed during ventricular pacing was related to the severity of asynchrony rather than the direction of the ventricular depolarization or change in regional myocardial tension.
Four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were investigated for their specific cellular and humoral immunities against measles virus. Lymphocytotoxicity mediated by peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated with the colony inhibition test of target cells having measles antigen. The lymphocytes from two patients of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) specifically destroyed the carrier cells; however, no significant lymphocytotoxicity was observed in the other two patients. The result suggests the heterogeneity in cellular immune states in SSPE patients.
To investigate the effect of exercise on alimentary lipemia, 6 healthy volunteers were exmained for their plasma parameters successively for 6 hr after ingestion of emulsified butter (1g/kg body weight) with and without subsequent intermittent loading of exercise (720 kilopound meters per min for 2 min, 6 times at hourly intervals) using a bicycle ergometer. No apparent differences were found between the fat loading test and the fat and exercise loading test in the 6 hr levels of plasma chylimicron-triglyceride, lipoprotein-triglyceride and endogenous lipolytic activity measured by the usual lipoprotein lipase assay method, although the increase in plasma free fatty acids in the fat and exercise loading test was significantly greater than that in the single fat loading test. It is concluded that the intermittent muscle exercise adopted in this study has no significant influence on the triglyceride elevation after the fat loading in man.
Eighteen patients with advanced or malignant hypertension due to essential hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus or chronic glomerulonephritis were infused intravenously with 1-Sar-8-Ile-Angiotensin II, a competitive antagonist of angiotensin II. The spectrum of responses was broad from a mild elevation to a marked fall in blood pressure. The changes in mean blood pressure caused by this peptide showed a significant correlation with the level of peripheral plasma renin activity immediately before the infusion (r=0.5652, p<0.02). This peptide infusion reduced blood pressure in 12 patients (responders), but not in 6 (non-responders). There were no differences with age, sex and severity of hypertension except for the level of peripheral plasma renin activity between the two groups. Our retrospective study showed that in 12 responders propranolol reduced blood pressure to near the normal level, while in 6 non-responders furosemide induced similar depressor response. It is concluded that the vasodepressor effect of this peptide correlates with the levels of peripheral plasma renin activity and that the responses to this drug can be used as a guide for the selection of effective antihypertensive drugs.