A method for simultaneous quantitative determination of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in urine by means of highvoltage paper electrophoresis was described. The extraction with ethyl acetate, coloration with diazotized p-nitroaniline, elution and spectrophotometric determination was carried out in the same way as used for VMA. VMA was separated at first from other urinary compounds including 5-HIAA by electrophoresis using pH 3.6 buffer, then isolation of 5-HIAA was carried out chromatographically on the same filter paper to the right-angle direction. For this purpose, filter paper which was cut into a crosswise form was employed. This method is highly specific and less time consuming, so that it may be useful in studies on catecholamine and serotonin metabolism. The recovery rate was about 86 per cent for 5-HIAA and 94 per cent for VMA, and the error of measurement was about 5 per cent respectively by this method. Estimation revealed that the excretion of 5-HIAA in human urine per day ranged from 1.9 to 5.1 mg. with an average of 3.04±1.07 mg. in 20 normal subjects, and that the urinary excretion ratio of 5-HIAA/VMA was about 1:1.22.
Operative results, especially late results, of splenectomy for Banti's syndrome were studied in cases treated in the authors' department, and provided the following information. 1. Eight out of 74 splenectomized cases died before discharge from the hospital, resulting in an operative mortality of 10.8 per cent. 2. Of the eight cases, two died of hepatic insufficiency and one from portal throbmosis, while the cause of death was little related to the original condition in the others. 3. Among 64 of the 74 splenectomized, excluding eight of early deaths and two without information available, 13 were found to be dead, the late mortality in this series being 20.3 per cent. Survival rate was estimated to be 83.3 per cent after 3 years, 68.8 per cent after 5 years and 66.7 per cent after 10 years. 4. Hepatic insufficiency was the most frequent cause of the late deaths, of which six cases died, while hematemesis resulted in death in only two. 5. Most of the survivors were good in general condition and were in active work with little difficulty, proving that splenectomy had been effective enough to rehabilitate them.
1. The partially N-deacetylated preparations of sodium chondroitin sulfate A and of sodium hyaluronate were deaminated with nitrous acid. 2. The deamination products of the N-deacetylated hexosamines in these partially N-deacetylated mucopolysaccharides were shown to be hexoses and 2, 5-anhydrohexoses. The amounts of hexoses found in the non-dialyzable matters of the deamination products were more than twice as much as those of 2, 5-anhydrohexoses. 3. The experimental results indicate that the C3-substituted hexosaminidic linkages are, more or less, resistant against the deaminative cleavage to form 2, 5-anhydrohexoses with nitrous acid.
A modification of Helmer's method for the determination of renin in peripheral blood was described. It consists of incubation of blood plasma at 37°C for 2 hours at pH 5.5, extraction of angiotensin released during the incubation by the action of renin, final purification of the extracted angiotensin by ion-exchange resin Dowex-50 chromatography, and bioassay of the purified angiotensin on the rat blood pressure preparation. The sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy in this method were studied, and they proved fairly satisfactory. The method will be useful in studying the renin-angiotensin system in human being. Circulating renin was found increased in patients with secondary aldosteronism, whether hypertensive or not. This finding supports the hypothesis that the renin-angiotensin system has a marked and specific stimulatory effect on the secretion of aldosterone.
1) Toxic principles of protein nature contained in the filtrates of five streptomyces cultures were purified by means of alcohol precipitation and zone electrophoresis. They were common in revealing both necrotic toxicity when injected intracutaneously into guinea pigs and cytotoxic effect against HeLa cell cultures. 2) They were all heat-labile particularly at pH 2.0, and the sedimentation constants were between 0.8 and 3.6. Four out of the five preparations were basic in nature. 3) With two preparations the production of antibody was proved upon intravenous injection into rabbits. Neutralization of the activity was proved with the antibodies towards these two principles. 4) Immunological analysis revealed that the proteins produced from two species of Str. Diastatochromogenes and two species of Str. Lavendulae are closely related. However, a protein isolated from Str. cellulosae was shown to be different from others. Acidic nature of the latter was also the difference from the remaining four which were basic in nature.
1. The octopus ERG was investigated with microelectrode inserted into the retina. A sustained negative and positive responses were recorded at the surface and deeper layer respectively. 2. Marked differences between these two responses were found in the experiments of area-dependence and of moving spot. 3. Based on these differences and the results obtained from the retina of which optic nerve had been sectioned, the two potential origins were suggested confirming the previous proposal. 4. It was found that the deep response showed lateral spreads of both negativity and positivity into surrounding unilluminated areas. 5. Spread of negativity of the deep response was found to be insensitive to a mechanical cut but much influenced by an adapting light. Opposite effects of a mechanical cut and an adapting light were observed for the deep response. 6. The axon collaterals of the receptor cells were tentatively considered to be the structures which mediate the spread of positivity of the deep response. The authors express thanks to Prof. J. Z. Young, University College London, for his interest and encouragement during this experiment, especially for his suggestion concerning the operative procedure of optic nerve sectioning. The authors are also indebted to the Onagawa Fisheries Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, for a generous supply of octopuses.