The distribution of body defence energy was studied from the standpoint of the hematopoietic phases of the bone-marrow and the fields and times of blood defense reaction. It was found that the sum of energy poured into the field of cell-bacterium reaction and the field of antibody-antigen reaction is equal to the defense energy of the body, and the law of conservation of defense energy is entirely the same as Mayer-Joule-Helmholtz's law of conservation of energy. From this law, it is construed that the cell-bacterium reaction and antibody-antigen reaction show a constant-antagonistic relation. The cells playing celll-bacterium reaction, especially neutrophils, show less qualitative changes but more quantitative changes in response to stimulations, and the cells playing antibody-antigen reaction, especially lymphocytes, show less quantitative changes but more qualitative changes by stimulations. Therefore, while the absolute count of leucocytes does not show the distribution of defense energy, their percentage shows the distribution of defense energy, adaptation of the body and characteristics of stimulant factors, and then the biological and clinical value of their percentage is far superior as compared with absolute count. In order to count the nucleated cells in the bone-marrow, the generally adopted method which makes total nucleated cells as 100%, is inconvenient and unreasonable from the standpoint of the hematopoietic phases in the bone-marrow and the fields and times of blood defense reaction. Rohr's counting method is excellent and reasonable as calculating method of the nucleated cells in the bone-marrow.
A new simple method, radio-pyelography, was devised for examination of the renal pelvis and calyx dynamics. This method proved to be useful in recording the excretory function of the renal pelvis and calyx. The changes in radioactivity of 131I-labelled hippuran injected retrogradely into the renal pelvis were recorded with a scintillation detector, ratemeter and recorder. The graphic record was named radio-pyelo-gram. The radio-pyelogram gave a constant curve in normal cases, but in patients with disorders of the upper urinary tract some changes in its figure were demonstrated. The basic pattern of radio-pyelogram was represented in a logarithmic formula as a function of outflow of urine, capacity of the renal pelvis and time course. Radio-pyelography is useful in analysis of radio-renogram of patients with disorders of the upper urinary tract.
In order to clarify the pathogenesis of neurogenic bladder, selective section of nerves innervating the urinary bladder was performed in adult dogs, and physiological, histological, and biochemical observations were carried out. The results obtained are as follows: 1) A marked inflammatory picture was found in the vesical wall, as well as in the ureter and the kidney, and subsequent pyelonephritis was assumed. 2) The cystometrogram, as well as the cystogram, revealed a characteristic change of vesical wall after the nerve section, and it was well correspondent to the kind of nerve section. 3) Tissue metabolic pattern of vesical wall was changed corresponding to the kind of nerve section, and it was thought that these changes would be developed through the alterative change in the tissue electron transfer system induced by the nerve section. 4) The vesical dysfunction was demon-strated in alloxan diabetic dogs relating to the degeneration of nerve fibers. 5) The pathogenesis of vesico-ureteral reflux, and the effect of additional section of spinal nerves, and furthermore the effect of relating therapeutic agents were examined.
Amphioxus photoreceptors were investigated with electron microscope. The visual cell of the Becherauge has the Stiftchensaum as the photoreceptoral structure which is composed of microvilli of the visual cell surface. Immediately underlying the Stiftchensaum is the tubular zone which is formed by the well-developed endoplasmic reticulum. Clumps of mitochondrial aggregations are found just inside of this zone, and numerous glycogen granules in the basal part of the cell. The fine structures of other photoreceptoral organs (dorsal cells, ependymal sense cells and infundibular organ) were elucidated and discussed.
The present study was made of the effect of the X-ray irradiation and the intravenous injections of the radiopathogenic substance (Radiotoxin A) on the con-tent and the base composition of the nucleic acid in the liver, spleen, adrenal glands and bone marrow of rabbits. The conclusions are as follows: (1) In rabitts with symptoms of radiation disturbance RNA in the liver and adrenal glands and DNA in the spleen and bone marrow showed a marked decrease. (2) Similar findings were obtained in the groups of injection of the radiopathogenic substance, Radiotoxin A. Especially in the group of serial injections of Radiotoxin A changes of RNA or DNA in the organs were more remarkable than in the groups irradiated with X-ray. (3) The base composition of the nucleic acid was changed by the X-ray irradiation or the intravenous injection of Radiotoxin A. That is, adenine of RNA in the liver decreased markedly and adenine of DNA in the spleen and bone marrow decreased too. Cytosine and uracil of RNA in the liver and cytosine and thymine of DNA in the spleen decreased, whereas cytosine of DNA in the bone marrow increased. Especially in the group of serial injections of Radiotoxin A there were the most remarkable changes.
In regard to the architecture of reticulin fibers, splenic tissue in Banti's syndrome exhibits two different types of basic changes: pulp hyperplasia and sinus hyperplasia. Histological patterns of the spleen were classified into four major types. Type I consits of pure pulp hyperplasia and represents the incipient stage of Banti's syndrome, while Type IV, pure sinus hyperplasia, corresponds to the ultimate splenic change in this syndrome. Types II and III are intermediate patterns. The proposed classification was correlated to a number of other histologic features of the spleen in this syndrome including hemorrhage, fibrosis, cell infiltration, and iron and calcium deposition, and to clinically determined portal pressure. The pathogenesis of Banti's syndrome was discussed on the basis of histological findings.