ASAKI, S., NISHIMURA, T., SATOH, A. and GOTO, Y. Endoscopic Control ofGastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Local Injection of Absolute Ethanol: A BasicAssessment of the Procedure. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 339-352 To investigate the hemostatic mechanism of local ethanol injection, ethanol was injected into the gastric mucosa of five adult mongrel dogs and one guinea pig and histologic changes at acute and healing stages were followed. Following a local injection of absolute ethanol, the blood flow in small vessels at the site of injection became instantaneously arrested. Histopathologically, thrombosis of blood vessels in the mucosa and submucosa with edema, predominantly submucosal, was found 10min after the ethanol injection. There was little or no inflammatory cell infiltration in the injected region. By 4 days after the injection, the base of the formed ulcer became stabilized with a uniform white coating, which, microscopically, was mainly composed of a thick layer of necrotized mucosal tissue. Ethanol showed fixative activity when applied to tissues at concentrations of ≥20% although an ethanol concentration of at least 70% was required to accomplish adequate tissue fixation. With 95% or lower concentrations of ethanol, dehydration of tissue was insufficient, and hemostasis due to local vasoconstriction was less conspicuous than with absolute alcohol. Nevertheless, a fixative effect with consequent degeneration and necrosis of cells and secondary thrombosis was evident even at these ethanol concentrations. In patients treated with this hemostatic procedure, exposed blood vessels in the gastric ulcer became necrotized and corroded by fixation with injected absolute ethanol and disappeared from the base of the ulcer within 24hr as seen in the animals.
YOSHIMURA, N. and YATA, J. Helper and Suppressor T-Cells Regulating KillerCells of EB Virus Infected Cells. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 353-362 -Using an in-vitro human lymphocyte system, a study was performed to determine whether helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells control the generation of killer cells against autologous B-cells transformed by Epstein-Barr (EB) virus. When T-cells were treated with mitomycin C and reacted in the presence of macrophages with target cells bearing HLA-DR, helper T-cells were induced but suppressor T-cells were not. In contrast, when T-cells were reacted in the absence of macrophages to target cells lacking HLA-DR, suppressor T-cells but not helper T-cells were induced. The culture supernatant of the T-cells which showed suppressor activity also suppressed the generation of killer cells. The thus-induced suppressor T-cells also suppressed the HLA incompatible allogeneic killer cells which were directed against autologous B-cells transformed by EB virus and also autologous killer cells directed against allogeneic target cells. These observations indicated that there is no HLA restriction between the suppressor T-cells and the killer cells and the suppression is antigen nonspecific.
TANAKA, K., KAJIYAMA, K., KAMEDA, S., NISHIGOURI, S., YAMADA, I. and SAWAE, Y. Increased Solubilization of Immune Complexes by the Sera fromPatients with Behcet's Disease. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 363-368-The capacity to solubilize immune complexes formed in vitro was measured in 25 patients with Behcet's disease. Both the level of circulating immune complexes and that of complement are increased in these patients. The solubilization capacity appeared to increase, paralleling the rise of serum complement levels in patients with Behcet's disease. Thus, increased capacity to solubilize immune complexes may be attributed to complement that is increased in these patients. The relationship between the capacity to solubilize complexes and the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease is discussed.
MURATA, K., TAKAFUJI, S., MIZOGUCHI, T., NAGASHIMA, K. and OKAZAKI, H. Poly-Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Autoantibody in Systemic Lupus Erythematosusand Other Related Autoimmune Diseases. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 369-379 - The binding activities of poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPR) and ds-DNA were measured in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other collagen diseases in comparison with normal subjects. High polyADPR binding activity was detected in the SLE sera. The polyADPR binding assay was as sensitive as the DNA binding assay for diagnosing SLE. In SLE sera, the increased polyADPR binding activity was correlated with that of ds-DNA and negatively with the complement (CH50) titer. With improvement of clinical symptoms of SLE, the binding activity of polyADPR decreased in parallel to the binding activity of ds-DNA and oppositive to the CH50 titer. The polyADPR binding activity was occasionally high in other collagen diseases. Effects of steroid treatment of SLE on the binding activities of polyADPR and ds-DNA, and CH50 titer were examined over half a year, indicating that both binding activities are reliable parameters for judgement of the clinical course.
KOBAYASHI, Y., SUZUKI, H., IINUMA, K., TADA, K. and YAMAMOTO T.Y. Endothelial Alterations of Skeletal Muscle Capillaries in Childhood Myopathies. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140, (4) 381-389 - Intramuscular blood capillaries in thirteen biopsied specimens obtained from eleven patients with various childhood myopathies were investigated ultrastructurally. The patients were classified into 4 different groups according to the percent distribution of various stages of endothelial alteration; normal endothelial type (E0 Type), slightly abnormal type (E1 Type), moderately abnormal type (E2 Type) and markedly abnormal type (E3 Type). Endothelial types in Duchenne dystrophy progressed from E0 to E1 and further to E2 Type, which kept pace with muscle degeneration. The endothelial types in Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and central core disease were E0 and those in multicore disease and Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy were E1. Two cases of mitochondrial myopathy showed E3 Type, which was characterized by markedly swollen endothelial cells and narrowed lumens. The endothelium in these two cases showed more marked changes than in other childhood myopathies.
HIRONO, H. Adipose Fatty Acid Composition in a Case of GeneralizedDeficiency of Cytochrome b5 Reductase in Congenital Methemoglobinemia withMental Retardation. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 391-394 - The fatty acid composition of the triglyceride in adipose tissue in a case of generalized deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase in congenital methemoglobinemia with mental retardation was analyzed and compared with age-matched controls. The proportions of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were decreased to less than half of normal level. There was a decrease in total unsaturated fatty acids and an increase in palmitic acid. These results revealed an undeveloped pattern of fatty acid composition in adipose tissue in the patient.
OBATA, M. Quantitative Studies on Sunburn Cell Formation in MouseEpidermis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 395-405 - Sunburn cell (SC) formation induced by single or combined doses of monochromatic ultraviolet-A (UV-A), ultraviolet-B (UV-B) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) was studied quantitatively using mouse epidermal sheet preparations (NaBr split, H & E stain). Results were as follows: 1) Action spectra for SC formation showed that wavelengths shorter than 300nm were most effective. 2) A significant number of SCs was produced when a high dose of UV-A (360nm) was administered, and it was estimated that approximately 600 times more UV-A (360nm) energy was required to produce the same number of SCs as was required with UV-B (300 nm). 3) SC formation by UV-B (300nm) and UV-C (260nm) showed a logarithm-like dose-response relationship. 4) Time course studies showed that the maximum number of SCs was attained at 18 hr after UV-C (260nm) irradiation, at 24hr after UV-B (300nm) irradiation and at 30hr after UV-A (360nm) irradiation. 5) A high dose of UV-A (360nm) significantly increased the number of SCs induced by UV-B (300nm) or UV-C (260nm) when combined with them.
ARAKAWA, T., NAKAMURA, H., CHONO, S., SATOH, H., YAMADA, H., ONO, T. and KOBAYASHI, K. Difference in Mode of Action of Cimetidine and Gefarnate onEndogenous Prostacyclin, Prostaglandin E2 and T hromboxane in Rat Gastric Mucosa. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 407-412 - The effects of cimetidine and gefarnate on endogenous prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane were studied in vivo in rat gastric mucosa. The animals received cimetidine (20mg/kg, i.p.) and/or gefarnate (100mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 7 days. Gastric mucosal 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (as prostacyclin), prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 (as thromboxane A2) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cimetidine reduced prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2, but not thromboxane A2. Gefarnate inhibited the cimetidine-induced reduction of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2; in cimetidine-untreated controls, it did not produce an increase in those prostaglandins and thromboxane A2 above the normal levels.
AKIBA, T., ISHIHARA, T., YOSHIKAWA, M., SATO, T. and KOMATANI, A. Calculationof Right and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Infants and Children by FirstPass Radionuclide Angiocardiography Using Self-Synchronization Method. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 413-419 - First pass radionuclide angiocardiography was utilized to calculate right and left ventricular ejection fraction in 74 infants and children. For the synchronization of radionuclide imaging with the cardiac cycle, the peaks and valleys of corrected ventricular time activity curve were adopted as the time reference points instead of R wave of electrocardiogram. Left ventricular ejection fractions obtained by the radionuclide technique correlated well with those derived from the contrast angiographic technique (r=0.90), but right ventricular ejection fractions correlated less well (r=0.74). This noninvasive technique appeared useful for evaluation of right and left ventricular ejection fraction.
OHMI, T., MUE, S., TAMURA, G., ISHIHARA, T., HOSHI, S. and TAKISHIMA, T. Inhibitory Effects of Histamine Antagonists on the Skin Reaction with House DustAllergen, Histamine and Compound 48/80 in Japanese Monkeys. Tohoku J. exp. Med, 1983, 140 (4), 421-428 - Using the skin of monkeys, we studied the participation of histamine receptors in the immediate skin reaction. Intradermal injection of H2 agonist produced whealing reaction to a significant degree, although this effect was not so remarkable as the effect of H1 agonist. A non-thiourea H2 antagonist showed a significant inhibitory effect on the whealing reaction to allergen, compound 48/80, and histamine. These results suggest that H2 antagonist prevented the whealing reaction by changing the vascular reaction to secreted or exogenous histamine. However, the participation of histamine receptors on dermal mast cells in the immediate skin allergic reaction is still left inconclusive.
TSUCHIYA, S., YAMAGUCHI, Y., KOBAYASHI, Y., MINEGISHI, M., IMAIZUMI, M., SUZUKI, H., KONNO, T. and TADA, K. An Epstein-Barr Virus-Negative BLymphoma Cell Line (THP-2) from a Burkitt's Lymphoma of a Japanese Patient. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 429-434 - An Esptein-Barr virus-negative lymphoma cell line, THP-2, was established from a Burkitt's lymphoma taken from a Japanese patient. THP-2 cells grew in single cell suspension with a doubling time of 24hr; the cells carried surface-bound μ-λ immunoglobulins and formed rosettes with IgG antibody-coated ox erythrocytes. THP-2 cells expressed B1, common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (J5) and Ia-like antigens of their surface as defined by monoclonal antibodies. Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) was not detected. The cell line THP-2 has been maintained for over 5 years. Among the markers examined, only common ALL antigen has been present on the cell surface of THP-2 for these 5 years.
IWASA, M., YOKOI, T. and SAGISAKA, K. Binding Sites of Seminal AcidPhosphatase to Canavalia gladiata DC Lectin. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 435-441 - Binding sites of seminal acid phosphatase (AcP) to Canavaliagladiata DC lectin (Can G) were examined. Complex of AcP and Can G produced in a test tube was solubilized with α-methyl-D-mannoside and was fractionated with Sephadex G-200. The elution pattern of AcP activity of the complex was similar to that of seminal plasma, suggesting that the reaction of AcP and Can G was reversible. Crossed immuno-affinoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel containing free Can G or immobilized one showed that AcP molecule had two or more binding sites per molecule to Can G. AcP activity of frozen sections of the prostate was inhibited by tartaric acid but not by Can G. However, Can G bound to AcP of the sections could be detected with FITC-labeled anti-Can G. These results indicate that the active site of AcP to Can G is not identical with that to the substrate.
TSUCHIYA, S., KOBAYASHI, Y., YAMAGUCHI, Y., IMAIZUMI, M., MINEGISHI, M., KONNO, T. and TADA, K. Two Non-T/Non-B Leukemia Cell Lines (THP-3-1and THP-3-2) Established from a Patient at Different Stages of the Disease. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (4), 443-444 - Two leukemia cell lines of different phenotypic expression were established from a single patient with non-T/non-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL); one (THP-3-1) was derived from the peripheral blood taken on admission before chemotherapy and the other THP-3-2) during the terminal stage. Both THP-3-1 and THP-3-2 cells were positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and Ia-like antigen but negative for surface immunoglobulins (Ig), nuclear antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EBNA) and receptors for sheep erythrocytes. However, there was a difference in the expression of common ALL antigen (J5) between the two cell lines. J5+ cells were found in only 5% of THP-3-1 and in 96% of THP-3-2.