Experimental studies were carried out in dogs to investigate the interaction between succinylcholine chloride and Imbretil. The results revealed that the previous administration of Imbretil potentiated the action of succinylcholine, which was, however, antagonzied by vagostimgnine and was synergistic with d-tubocurarine. This fact suggests a possibility that Imbretil may enhance the transition of the mode of action of succinylcholine from depolarization block to non-depolarization block.
In order to find an approved technique and to study the general results of homologous canine heart transplantation, twenty-nine experiments were performed in three groups of dogs. After evaluations of the experiments with ECG, and pathological examination, the following results were obtained: 1. Twenty-nine transplantations were attempted and all were technically successful but one failed by coronary air-embolism. 2. Twelve transplants failed within 10 hours and most of the first group (5 of 6 cases) failed by left atrial rupture. 3. The third group, subjected to end-to-side anastomosis between the aorta and the carotid artery, showed most satisfactory results. 4. The longest period of survival of the transplant was 130 hours. ECG or pathological study was made with the transplant, and incompatibility of the transplant was discussed by pathological findings.
The cervical heart transplantation is a new and promising device for study of pharmacology of the denervated heart. In this experiments, pharmacological studies of vasopressants, central nervous stimulants and parasympathetic drugs on the denervated heart are studied in comparison with the recipient heart in the same body. 1. As a technique for investigating the denervated heart, the usefulness of the cervical heart transplantation described by Mann, Priestley, Marcowitz and Yater was proved. 2. Highsensitivity of the denervated heart to sympathomimetic drugs was found to be in the order of epinephrine, ephedrine and nor-adrenaline. 3. On the contrary, parasympathetics evoked no highsensitivity of the denervated heart. 4. Central nerve stimulants have no action on the denervated heart.
The limits of myocardial tolerance of the preserved canine heart at various conditions were studied by the heart transplantation method. 1. Without heparinization of the heart, the time limit may be 2 to 3 hours at 19°C. 2. Preventing blood coagulation by heavy heparinization, preserved hearts may be shut out of circulation up to 30 hours and resume a normal cardiac rhythm. 3. Perfusion of the coronary vessels to wash out all blood extends the limits as does complete heparinization. 4. The time limits of viability of preserved heart are related not solely to the length of acute ischemia but more to the patency of capillary bed. Hypothermic preservation is another very effective method to extend the limits, whereas the kind of preserving solutions showed no conclusive difference in the present experiments.
The intracellular distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases, lipase and RNA in the developing pancreas of fetal mouse was observed histochemically. During the course of this study, general observations on the histogenesis of the pancreas, especially that of the islets of Langerhans, were also carried out. The findings may be summarized as follows: 1. Two successive developmental stages of the islets, the primary and the secondary, were confirmed. No degeneration of the primary islets was however established. 2. The primary islets initially appeared in the dorsal anlage of the pancreas of 10 days as the masses of cells showing an intense basophilia and a high phosphatase activity. The amount of cytoplasmic RNA was rapidly decreased thereafter. 3. The secondary islets appeared in the dorsal anlage of 14 days, while those in the ventral anlage was first observed one or half a day later. The tubular origin of the secondary islets was confirmed, and the primitive cells of this generation of the islets were characterized by an intense activity of alkaline phosphatase. No specific accumulation of RNA in these cells was detected by the staining with pyronin and chrome alum gallocyanin. 4. The activity of acid phosphatase was also fairly restricted to the islets and the duct from the early stage of development, and the activity lasted until the latest date of the intra-uterine life. 5. The activity of lipase was observed only in the fully developed excretory cells having the zymogen granules.
With vivipara 811 breast cancer patients and 1, 239 control cases as the materials, I have studied the relation of the lactation periods to the growth of breast cancer, and now think to have reached the following conclusion: (The matter of the longest lactation period is not regarded instrumental to the growth of breast cancer). In the 30-39 age-group, the total lactation periods little affect the growth of breast cancer, but their relation appears conspicuous in the groups over 40 and above years of age. As a general trend, it is observed that a close relation exists between the shorter total lactation period and the increased growth of breast cancer on one band and the longer total lactation period and the decreased growth of breast cancer on the other. But this relation differently appears in degree in accordance with the variety of groups on age and districts, urban and rural. The number of live births and the total lactation periods hold an inseparable relation, and I have got a valuable suggestion that the smaller number of live births with shorter total lactation periods may be instrumental to the growth of breast cancer.
We have found that in setting the total lactation period of vivipara we can use its square root as its measure and produce normal distribution in our frequency distributions regarding breast cancer patients and controls. Both in urban and rural districts, the s. r. m. means of total lactation periods for the breast cancer patients with no mastitis history and those for the controls show no noticeable difference in the groups under 45 years of age, but those for the patients stnad smaller than those for the controls in the groups over 45 years of age. According to our data, of the total number of breast cancer patients, 16.7% is covered by those with mastitis history. There is an observed trend that the s. r. m. means of total lactation periods for the breast cancer patients with mastitis history stand large as compared with those for the patients with no mastitis history.
I have introduced the limiting function l(x) of relative liability in the case where the populations are normal. It has become clear that the function l(x) is instructive in the study on the quantitative relation of total lactation periods and frequencies of breast cancer. We may safely conclude that in the urban and the rural district, the length of total lactation periods closely affects the frequencies of breast cancer in 45-64 age-group, though there is no particular relation between them in the 35-44 age-group. In closing my report this time, I want to express my sincerest thanks to Professor Mitsuo Segi for the kind and thoughtful guidance extended to me.
1) The present author has experienced 37 cases of alternariasis in and around Hanamaki City, Iwate Prefecture, between January, 1956 and June, 1958. 2) Pure culture was successfully carried out with spores of the fungus isolated from the urine of the patients, using potato-glucose agar medium. 3) Upon experimental infection of guinea-pig with the fungus, the death rate of ca. 70% ensued with 8 days for existence on the average. 4) For treating the disease, trichomycin was found most efficacious. 5) Infection by the fungus seems to come orally through drinkng well water and the only sure way of prophylaxis is boiling water at least for 10 minutes before use.
Effects of the posterior rhizotomy were studied on the conditioned leg flexion responses in dogs, paying special attention to whether the conditioned response was established by the classical procedure or by the instrumental one. The following results were obtained. 1. The classical conditioned response lost its preoperative high scores after the dorsal roots supplying the trained leg were completely sectioned. 2. The instrumental conditioned response suffered no detectable changes after the posterior rhizotomy. 3. A discussion was made concerning the role of afferent impulses in maintaining activity of the conditioned response.
Basing ourselves on the population and mortality statistics furnished us by the central statistical administrations of 23 countries, we computed the age-adjusted death rates for cancers of all sites, the esophagus, the stomach, the intestine, the rectum, the pancreas, the lung, the breast, the uterus, the ovary and the prostate and of leukemia and aleukemia in these countries in the years 1954-55, taking the sum of the male and female populations by five-year age-classes of 46 countries around 1950 as standard, for examining the status of cancer mortality in these countries. The items surveyed comprise comparisons of the adjusted death-rates by countries and by sites, comparison of the sex ratios of the death rates by sites and by countries, the geographical correlation of male and female death rates by sites and the geographical correlation of male and female death rates of cancers of the same sites.