In 1922 I published with Sekiya a new peroxidase reaction (often quoted in the literature as Sato and Sekiya's peroxidase stain or as Sato's peroxidase reaction). As my proper object of research was infantile nutrition, I made light of our own peroxidase reaction-which was then used only for the differentiation of myeloic and lymphatic leucocytes in leukemic cases (then very rare). But in course of time it gave me a hint to finding 1) the localisation of a brain lesion, 2) the poison of infantile beriberi (methyl glyoxal 1934; strictly chemical identification 1950) and 3) a new disease (Chédiak-Higashi's Disease).
Sendai virus (Parainfluenza virus type I) formed the plaques on monolayer culture of kidney cells of 2 or 3 day old chicks. A linear relationship between the concentration of virus and the number of plaque was observed. Plaque forming unit of Sendai virus with chick kidney monolayers was about one-third to one-tenth of that of 50% egg infectious doses. Growth of Sendai virus in chick kidney cell monolayer reached a maximum titer at 15 hours and production of infectious particles by single cell was calculated at about 25 plaque forming units.
Formiminotransferase activity in the liver was only slightly decreased when rats were made severely vitamin B12 deficient by feeding with vitamin B12-free diet for 30 days or more consecutive to the operation of forming a self-filling diverticulum of the small intestine.
Precipitation of bile on in vitro incubation was studied with special reference to the difference between the calcium bilirubinate stone and the cholesterol stone cases. In the case of calcium bilirubinate stones, bile was mostly infected and invariably yielded on incubation a precipitate which consisted mainly of spherical particles of calcium bilirubinate and resembled in composition a calcium bilirubinate stone. After incubation, the content of bilirubin decreased and that of free glucuronic acid increased in bile, and it was found that bilirubin glucuronide in bile was hydrolyzed by the activity of β-glucuronidase of bacterial origin into free bilirubin and free glucuronic acid and the former combined with inorganic elements to form insoluble bilirubinates. This type of precipitation is found to represent the initial stage of formation of calcium bilirubinate stones. The bile of cases with cholesterol stones, on the other hand, occasionally produced precipitates even in non-infected specimens. Moreover, the precipitate, containing many cholesterol crystals, was different in composition from that of bile in calcium bilirubinate stone cases. From these and other findings it was presumed that the precipitation of bile in cholesterol stone cases might occur by a different mechanism.
Authors developed a modified assay method for standardization of anti-coagulant activity of whale heparin by use of the mixture of human and ox sulphated blood and ox thrombokinase. The stable unit was obtained by this method in the course of preservation of mixed sulphated blood at 4°C for 20 days. The toxicity of whale heparin was the same as that of beef heparin. Tests of the contamination of histamine and pyrogenic substance were negative.
A total of 216 cases underwent open-cardiac operations up to December 1963. The hypothermia was applied for 121 instances, while 95 individuals were operated upon by means of heart-lung machine. On the basis of the above clinical experiences, advantages and disadvantages of hypothermia and heart-lung machine have been described and our current point of view about operative indications has been presented. Furthermore, detailed account has been made on history and development of hypothermia and heart-lung machine for open-heart surgery in our department. Some improved points which may contribute to widening indications of hypothermia, in particular, have been discussed.
With respect to the significance of duodenal extension of stomach cancer in practical surgery, 833 stomach specimens obtained by subtotal gastrectomy were examined histologically. The incidence of duodenal invasion was 18.1 per cent (151 cases) as a whole but as high as 37.0 per cent in the 135 cases in which the stomach tumors were 1cm or less distant from the pyloric ring. Of the cases with duodenal invasion, the serosa of the duodenum was involved in 115 cases (76.2 per cent) but the continuous extension of carcinoma to the duodenal mucosa was observed in none; most of the former cases were those in which carcinoma extended to the duodenal serosa from the stomach serosa in the form of inci-pient carcinomatous peritonitis. The 151 cases were commonly associated with cancer spreads to other structures, e. g. peritoneal invasion and lymph node metastasis, and the majority were revealed to be beyond the scope of radical surgery even when the duodenum was widely resected. However, it was also noteworthy that there were a few cases in which carcinoma of the prepyloric region extended to the submucosa of the duodenum at an early stage of cancer progress where no other extragastric spread was evidenced.
Antiplasmin assay has been substituted for antitrypsin assay in this series. It became, however, evident in the previous experiment that the inhibitors to trypsin are not completely identical with those of plasmin. Therefore, the device of the method of antiplasmin assay has become necessary. This paper describes the method of antiplasmin assay which is based on the following principles: (1) The total plasmin, caseinolytic activity of streptokinase-activated euglobulin in which most antiplasmin is eliminated, is determined in the first step. (2) In the second step, plasma is preincubated with streptokinase for 2 minutes, and then further incubated with casein. This is the activity influenced by immediately acting antiplasmin in plasma. (3) In the third step, streptokinase-activated euglobulin is preincubated with inhibitor (euglobulin-eliminated supernate) for 2 hours in the presence of ethylamine, a stabilizer of plasmin. Then it is further incubated with casein. This is the activity inhibited by slowly acting antiplasmin. (4) The differences between the values obtained from steps 1 and 2, and 1 and 3 express the immediate and slow antiplasmin of Norman, respectively.
A method was developed for the quantitative measurement of blood flow through the porto-pulmonary anastomosis in portal hypertension. Among 12 patients with portal hypertension 2 patients showed 14.4% and 11.3% of the blood flow through the porto-pulmonary anastomosis, respectively. Other 3 patients showed near-normal values, and 7 patients normal values. There was no significant correlation between the calculated blood flow and the arterial oxygen saturation.
It is unusual to be able to obtain blood samples for laboratory examination from patients with fibrinolytic hemorrhage prior to the manifestation of bleeding. Therefore, some of the results obtained from laboratory tests may represent secondary changes due to fibrinolytic hemorrhage. In order to detect valuable diagnostic tools, the various tests for clotting and plasmin systems were carried out on 16 patients diagnosed as having fibrinolytic hemorrhage and on plasma in which fibrinolysis was artificially induced by streptokinase addition in vitro. The importance of measurements of clot-lysis time of the whole blood and whole plasma, prothrombin activity, thrombelastography, heparin tolerance test, fibringogen, factors of plasmin system, thrombin time, fibrinogen by turbido-metric method and erythrocytes sedimentation rate in cases of pregnancy was emphasized as diagnostic tools of fibrinolytic hemorrhage, especially the latter three due to their simplicity in technique.
The investigations into the relationship between the adrenal cortex and the properdin level have revealed the following: 1. Under the effect of a stress the properdin level decreases. 2. Adrenalectomy considerably decreases the properdin level. 3. On examining the effect of the various cortical hormones, the following facts could be establshed: the deep fall of the properdin level in the untreated group is lessened by prednisolone and increased by DOCA, whereas it is completely counteracted by aldosterone and cortisone displaying mineralo-and glycocorticoid properties. In the case of normal adrenal function, the properdin level is decrea-sed by cortisone DOCA and prednisolone treatments, but it hardly changes under the effect of aldosterone. 4. By a regular zymosan treatment the amount of properdin, after a transi-tional increase of the level, can be completely exhausted. The adrenal gland has probably something to do with it, although the exact nature of its function has not yet been clarified. 5. In adrenalectomized and zymosan-treated rats, after the temporary maintenance of the initial level, the exhaustion sets in earlier.