Macroserial reconstruction of the main intralobular bile ducts was made in 7 cases of biliary atresia; 2 cases of type I, 1 case of type II and 4 cases of type III according to Kasai's classification. From the results of these reconstruction studies, it was confirmed that the main interlobular bile ducts are usually patent through the liver regardless of the type of atresia of the extrahepatic bile ducts. A microserial reconstruction of bile ducts and ductules of a small portal tract performed in one case disclosed that a number of ductules make a network around the main duct and have some communications with the main duct. These results were compatible with the fact that active excretion of bile was obtained in many postoperative patients with biliary atresia. As observed in one case of the present series, postoperative complication of severe ascending cholangitis seemed to be an important cause of destruction or disappearance of intrahepatic bile ducts, which has also seen in older infants with this disease without complica-tion of cholangitis. In view of these facts the operation of an early stage of life is recommended in biliary atresia.
An injection of anti-rat erythrocyte rabbit serum or its 7S globulin fraction into rats resulted in immunohemolytic anemia associated with a positive antigloublin test examined with anti-rabbit gammaglobulin serum. However, an injection of 19S globulin fraction from the antierythrocyte serum failed to cause immunohemolytic anemia, although it induced a transient decrease in red cell count. These results indicate that 7S antibodies are responsible for the induction of antiglobulin test positive, experimental immunohemolytic anemia. The ferrokinetic and stathmokinetic studies revealed the prolongation of generation time of basophilic and polychromatic erythroblasts in rats injected with anti-erythrocyte serum or its 7S globulin fraction. The results from in vitro [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments also confirmed this prolongation. The analysis of in vivo [3H]thymidine labeling of erythroblasts in rats which were given the 7S globulin antibodies suggested the prolongation of the G1 time of the erythroblasts. These results suggest that the effects of anti-erythrocyte antibodies on the generation cycle of erythroblasts are to prolong their G1 time and keep them dormant.
The light microscopic characteristics of the normal cutaneous lymphatic capillary of man are the presence of elastic fibers around the vessel and a sudden change in contour of the lumen as observed on serial sections. Both are useful characteristics for differentiating the lymphatic from the blood capillary. Electron microscopic investigation is necessary to identify definitely vessels as lymphatic capillaries by demonstrating the absent or scanty basal lamina of the endothelial cell.
Glycosaminoglycans from a case of pulmonary fibrosis (desquamative interstitial pneumonia of usual type) was analyzed by means of proteolytic digestion, solvent fractionation, column chromato-graphy on anion exchanger, electrophoresis and enzymatic digestion. The result suggested an increase in dermatan sulfate and possibly of heparan sulfate in the fibrotic lung as compared with the normal. It is preferable to take the samples for analysis from a freshly excised specimen of the Icing, because there was a sign of degradation of glycosaminoglycan due to storage of the specimen in a solution of formalin.
The experiment was designed to elucidate the question whether the unilateral ablation of the amygdala significantly affects sexual behavior or not. For this purpose, the effect of the unilateral amygdalecto-my upon Matatabi-response was investigated in the cat (R-cat), particularly in cats which showed unmanifested Matatabi-response in the innate status (NR-cat). Following the unilateral damage to the amygdala, NR-cats showed a significant manifestation in their Matatabi-response behavior, while R-cats indicated no change in it, their performance level being the same as preoperatively. It is concluded from the present results that even the unilateral ablation of the amygdala affects sexual behavior significantly, this being in contrast to many previous reprots. The present finding implies that individual differences in sexual behavior appear to depend on the neural basis of the amygdala, supporting an assumption that the amygdala is a controlling center of sexual and emotional behaviors.
Changes in the cardiac output and blood flow in the renal, superior mesenteric and carotid arteries in anesthetized dogs were observed, using the non-cannulating electromagnetic flow meter. Dibutyryl cyclic-AMP, 5 mg/kg body weight, was given intravenously and the following results were obtained: 1) Dibutyryl cyclic-AMP increased the stroke volume and the cardiac output, and slightly increased the heart rate. These effects appeared 3 to 5 min after administration of dibutyryl cyclic-AMP. 2) The mean systemic blood pressure as well as the central venous pressure fell slightly. 3) The renal and the superior mesenteric artery blood flow increased markedly, but the carotid artery blood flow did not change. 4) Distribution of the cardiac output to the renal and superior mesenteric arteries did not change but distribution to the carotid artery decreased. 5) Total peripheral resistance, renal artery vascular resistance and superior mesenteric artery vascular resistance decreased, and carotid artery vascular resistance decreased slightly. 6) The cardiac output and blood flow were enhanced by aminophylline (3 mg/kg), and were not blocked by propranolol (0.3 mg/kg).
Case 1 showed recurrence of hyperthyroidism accompanied by pretibial myxedema and digital clubbing 14 years after thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Case 2 had had pretibial myxedema for the past 20 years and myxedema tuberosum at the right shoulder for the past 10 years, and on admission showed exophthalmos and digital clubbing with thyroid gland demonstrating histological picture of chronic thyroiditis. This case was in slight hypothyroidism and serum LATS was highly positive. Eight cases of E. M. O. syndrome have so far been reported in Japan, including our own. Six cases of these were males. Two cases did not show any sign of hyperthyroidism throughout their entire courses, including our Case 2 described here. Three cases had never received treatment for Graves' disease prior to the occurrence of this syndrome. The serum LATS was positive in all 5 cases thus far reported.
A food additive, furylfuramide or AF-2, which had been used in Japan since 1965 and structurally is composed of 5-nitro-2-furyl radical and acrylamide, was re-examined mainly on chronic toxicity by statistically reviewing published data. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The maximum safety dosage which shows no demonstrable change in rats must be corrected at least to 1/170 of the value which has been accepted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (MHVV). 2) The minimum effective dose to bacterial growth in food can not be lowered below the standard usage level which MHW determined, because the inactivation factor in food, decreasing effectivity to 1/20, must be taken into consideration. 3) In view of these two facts, AF-2 is found to be unacceptable as a food additive. 4) Great importance must also be attached to the possibility of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of AF-2, pointed out recently. Both neurotoxicity and dermatitis observed in tofu (soybean curd) makers are also mentioned.
Canine hindlimb muscles were perfused with arterial blood from a donor at a constant pressure or at a constant flow rate. Blood samples were analyzed for adenosine, oxygen and potassium during load-free twitch contractions (2 cps) and/or after 3-min ischemia. (1) During exercise hyperemia A-V oxygen (p<0.001) and V-A potassium (p<0.001) differences increased in both perfusion systems. Under the constant pressure total amount of adenosine and/or AMP released (TAAR) remained constant at 34.4±7.8 (mean±s. D. ) nmoles/ml of blood compared with 31.0±5.6 at rest, whereas under the constant flow rate the value increased from 32.8±9.4 to 74.6±5.7 (p<0.001). (2) In reactive hyperemia A-V difference of oxygen increased (p<0.001) and TAAR remained at 33.0±8.3 under the constant pressure. Under the constant flow rate TAAR increased from 32.8±9.4 to 48.1±2.6 (p<0.001). (3) After ischemic contractions TAAR remained constant under the constant pressure perfusion. Under the constant flow rate, however, TAAR showed definite decrease compared with that during exercise hyperemia with intact flow (p<0.001). (4) The authors think that adenosine and/or AMP is the mediator of exercise hyperemia, supported by potassium ions and local hypoxia. Adenosine and/or AMP, and local hypoxia are responsible for reactive hyperemia. In ischemic contractions, no special circulatory mediator was found.
Chromosome analysis was made in induced abortions within 12 gestational weeks after the first day of the last menstrual period. There were 22 cases (7.3%) of gross chromosome anomalies in 300 materials. About a half of aberrant embryos were born to mothers who had positive histories of drug treatments or X-irradiation for various reasons.