1) Rutin, quercetin and dihydroquercetin (D.H.Q.) give diuretic action to normal and hydrated rabbits. 2) The mode of diuretic action is different in rutin, quercetin and D.H.Q. respectively. D.H.Q. shows its action shortly after injection and rutin at a later stage, while quercetin shows its action at both early and later stages. 3) The diuretic action can be observed also in rats slightly. 4) The effects of combined use of rutin, quercetin and D.H.Q. with caffein, g-strophanthin, or Igrosin are not identical. Simultaneous application of quercetin with caffein or Igrosin; and D.H.Q. with Igrosin produce a synergistic diuretic action. The antidiuretic action of g-strophanthin is antagonized by the use of these flavone compounds. 5) These flavone compounds cause hydremia in rabbits. Quercetin shows the most marked action of these compounds. 6) These flavone compounds cause a slight fall in blood pressure, without causing any influence upon a kidney volume. 7) Quercetin accelerates the respiration of kidney slices of mice, while no evident action is observed in the case of rutin or D.H.Q.. 8) The combination of quercetin with caffeine, g-strophanthin or Igrosin and that of D.H.Q. with Igrosin increase the rates of respiration of kidney slices. But the combined application of rutin with caffein or g-strophanthin decreases the tissue respiration. 9) Rutin, quercetin. and D.H.Q. are rapidly excreted in urine. After intravenous injection, from 20-50% of administered rutin or quercetin can be recovered in the urine and from 10-20 % of D.H.Q
The investigation on the amounts of adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (N) in the suprarenal gland and in the blood after administration of mecholyl, acetylcholine, nicotine and the splanchnic stimulation was performed. Rat's blood-pressure and rabbit's intestine were used to estimate the contents of A and N in the isolated rabbit's suprarenal gland, the Gaddum's formula being applied for calculation. The proportions of A and N liberated from the suprarenal gland were determined by the method. of Bülbring and Burn, using a denervated cat's nictitating membranes. Under the conditions mentioned above an increase of N and a decrease of A was observed. From these results it may be considered that N plays an important part as an adrenergic transmitter.
Using a modified Hot-plate Method by Woolfe and Macdonald, a detailed investigation was made as to the reactions exerted in mice to the painful heat stimulus, which were divided then into two groups, i.e. the tremor as a first reaction ; bending or lifting up the hind limbs, etc. and the second reaction ; licking the sole of back paw or jumping, etc.. From the results of experiments in normal as well as in spinal mice it has been proved that the first reaction is of spinal nature and it disappears ever after spinal depressant drugs, while the second reaction is derived from supraspinal origin. The more reliable estimation will be, therefore, obtainable by making the second reaction as the algesimetric standard of drug effects. Further, other essential problems as to the algesimetric methods are also discussed.
The local anesthetic activities of the anti-histaminic drugs have been studied. on the skin of frogs (hind legs) and cornea of rabbits. 1) The anti-histaminic drugs, such as Restamin (Benadryl), Pyribezamine, Anergen (3115 RP) and Anahist, have an apparent local anesthetic action on the skin of frogs and cornea of rabbits. The order of anesthetic potency of these compounds is as follows : Anergen>Restamin>Pyribenzamine>Anahist. The local anesthetic potency is more apparent at pH 7.2 of solution than at pH 6.6. 2) Anti-histaminic drugs intensifies the local anesthetic action of another anti-histaminic or of local anesthetics on the skin of frogs. 3) When anti-histaminics in, high concentration are applied with local anesthetics to the cornea of rabbits, the duration of anesthesia decreases, but anti-histaminics in low concentration augment the anesthetic activities of local anesthetics. 4) The permeability rate of procaine through the cornea of rabbits is increased by Restamin and Pyribenzamine either in vivo or in vitro. 5) The permeability rate of anti-histaminic drugs (Restamin, Pyribenzamine) and local anesthetics (Procaine, Narcaine) are influenced by pH of the applied solution.This rate is higher at pH 7.2 than at pH 6.6.
The influences of liver artery ligation and of liver extirpation on the alcohol metabolism were observed by making experiments on rabbits. Ethyl-, methyl-, and isopropyl-alcohol were administered intravenously and the concentration of these alcohols in blood were determined every one hour. The results were as follows : 1) The oxidation of ethyl-alcohol was scarcely influenced by the liver artery ligation. It was clearly restrained by the extirpation, yet still went on after the operation. 2) In the case of methyl-alcohol, the oxidation was nearly checked by the ligation, and completely by the extirpation 3) The oxidation of isopropyl-alcohol was restrained in some degree by the ligation, and was stopped by the extirpation. Of these alcohols, ethyl is the most easily oxidized, next comes isopropyl, and the last methyl-alcohol.
A method has been devised for the perfusion of a dog's head connected to its body only by vago-sympathetic trunk and spinal cord. In order to separate completely the vascular system of the head from the body, it was shown to be necessary to transect all the skin and muscles around the neck at the level of occipito-atlantal joint and to occlude A. spinalis anterior and Sinus columunae vertebralis in vertebral canal. The completeness of the blockade of the blood circulation between head and body was checked by the injection of Evan's blue or adrenaline in either side of the circulation. The time course of survival and reactivity to drugs of the brain was also investigated. From the result obtained in 30 experiments it has been convinced that this method is one of the most excellent methods to observe the direct action of drugs upon brain centres.
By means of our method (see this Breviaria, No. 63), the central effect upon blood pressure and respiration of, adrenaline and its homologues injected into the perfusion circuit 'of dog's head was investigated. Adrenaline reduced the systemic blood pressure and the respiratory, movement of the recipient dog. By a given dose of adrenaline, the degree of the fall was shown to be roughly proportional to the initial level. This central inhibitory effects of adrenaline upon both the blood pressure and the respiration were observed not only during the adjustment of the elevated perfusion pressure by adrenaline to preinjection level but also after denervation of vagus and/or carotid sinus nerves. N-Methylbenzedrine and ephedrine given intraarterially to the head, elevated the systemic blood pressure gradually, the effect of the latter being remarkably weaker than the former. The former stimulated the respiration, whereas the latter did not show any stimulation but caused inhibition. 'Both of them dilated slightly the blood vessels of the head.