The paper deals with recent advances in anatomical, physiological, biochemical and pharmacological studies on the vestibular system. Fiber connections and characteristics of neurons in the vestibular nuclei were discussed in relation to regulation from other structures such as the cerebellum, oculomotor nuclei, reticular formation and spinal cord. In addition, a review was made of the actions on the vestibular system of antivertigo drugs including anticholinergic and antihistamine drugs, tranquilizers and barbiturates. All the obtained data show that the vestibular nuclei are devoid of noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic innervation, in contrast to other brainstem nuclei. Acetylcholine is apparently a neurotransmitter in the afferent transmission from the vestibular nerve to the vestibular nuclei. Antivertigo drugs produce modification in the neuron activity in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei.