This report concerns a review of the neuroendocrine effects of narcotic analgesics and endorphins. Acute administration of narcotic analgesics to rats increases the blood levels of ACTH, GH and prolactin, and decreases levels of LH and TSH, however, there is no general consensus regarding changes in serum FSH, ADH and oxytocin as induced by narcotics in rats. In humans, the narcotic analgesic increases in serum prolactin, decreases in serum LH and has no effect on the release of other known pituitary hormones. Endorphins mimick morphine regarding hormonal effects. Effects of naloxone on the basal levels of prolactin, LH or GH were inverse to the effects seen with narcotics and endorphins, therefore endorphins may play a role in regulating the basal levels of these hormones. Narcotic analgesics depress the increased blood levels of prolactin, gonadotropins or TSH elicited by specific measures. While chronic administration of morphine results in tolerance to the stimulant effect of ACTH, and possibly of prolactin secretion, tolerance does not develop to the stimulant effect on GH secretion. The analgesic potency of narcotic analgesics correlates with their suppressive effect on the pituitary-gonadal system and the potency with which endorphins bind to the opiate receptors correlates with their prolactin releasing activity. It is assumed that narcotic analgesics and endorphins exert their hormonal effects by altering the release of neurotransmitters in the CNS. Thus, a release of hypothalamic releasing hormones is involved rather than a direct action on the pituitary. The central neurotransmitter systems involved in the hormonal effects of narcotics are now being intensively investigated by various groups of workers.