Procaine was injected intravenously to the normal and the eviscerated rabbits and the concentration of procaine and PABA in the blood was measured. Moreover, the decomposition of procaine in plasma and homogenated liver cells was investigated. The experimental data led us to the following conclusions. Procaine in the blood will be liberated from its ester conjugation at the rate in proportion to about 2 powers of concentration. In the blood most of procaine conjugate rapidly with, perhaps, plasma proteins, but its decomposition product, p-aminobenzoic acid, does not so. The liver is comparatively poor in activity to decompose procaine, but rich in that to conjugate. In the eviscerated rabbits PABA accumulates in the body. Procaine is destroyed chiefly by the blood, though. the disposition of its decomposition products depends greatly upon the liver. Very little of procaine is excreted by the kidney, and most of PABA and its conjugation substances are excreted by it.
I) By the administration of a large quantity of glucose, it seems that the rate of the oxidation of ethyl alcohol is more or less accelerated in comparison with control cases and that the degree of narcosis by alcohol shows slight irregularities (shallow or deep) in each case. On the other hand, it has been observed that the administration of glucose in rabbit caused hyperglycemia, and that the recovery to normal blood sugar level was delayed by alcohol injection. 2) Insulin accelerates alcohol oxidation in animal body, to a remarkable degree when glucose, and insulin are both administered. The deficiency of insulin, however, exerts scarcely little influence on the oxidation of alcohol. It seems that insulin plays a principal role in affecting the distribution of alcohol between tissues and body fluids. 3) It has been also recognized that in starvation the blood alcohol concentration showed higher values in alloxan treated animals than in nondiabetic ones and the hyperglycemia sometimes was reduced by alcohol injection. The narcosis of diabetic animals resulting from intravenous injection of alcohol was not so intense because of the lightness of the amount of alcohol adhering to the brain tissues.
1) The active principles of Panax ginsengare not panaquillon and panax acid as previously considered, but it seems to be contained in the other unknown part of this drug and may be lost in the course of purification. 2) The water extract of-Panax ginsenghas a preventing action against the somatic fatigue in human body, which is ascribed probably to its central stimulant action. 3) The oral administration ofPanax ginsengas powder causes leucocytosis in rabbits. 4) The phagocytosis index increases by oral application in rabbits. 5) The increase of γ-globuline in blood serum is proved. 6) The function of liver and reticuloendothelial cells are affected by this drug. 7) No effect is observed upon the adrenal cortex.. 8) The hyperglycaemia induced by adrenaline or alloxan can be restrained by this drug in rabbits.
Using the BrCN-Aniline method of estimation for nicotine reported previously (I. Yamamotoet al., 1954), plasma levels and tissue distribution of nicotine after subcutaneous injection of 5 mg/kg nicotine were investigated in dog and rabbit. 1) The highest plasma concentration in dog was found at 15 minutes after and its value was 5.7 per ml.. In rabbit its value was 4 per ml. at 30 minutes after and in the 5 hours plasma sample nicotine could not be proved. 2) After the administration of the same dose per weight the nicotine plasma level was lower in rabbit than dog. 3) The plasma erythrocyte ratio of nicotine distribution was 10 to 7. 4) The tissue distribution of nicotine in dog at one hour, was higher in kidney, pancreas and brain than any other tissue, in rabbit the results were almost the same except brain and at 6 hours after, nicotine could not be proved in any tissue.
Morphological observations of the prostate of various kinds of animals were made and the growth of the prostate, and that of other sexual organs were morphologically compared. Effect of castration and hypophysectomy on the. prostate was then examined. It was found that there is an extremely marked morphological difference in the prostate of various animals and that the growth of the prostate is greater than that of other sexual organs. The prostate becomes atrophied on castration and its growth stops with subsequent atrophy by hypophysectomy.
Movement and tonus of the prostate of various animals were examined by the improved Magnus method, using the precision kymograph especially constructcd. for the present experiments. The tonus of the prostate increased by the adrenergic drugs and a movement sometimes appeared. The prostate is not influenced by cholinergic drugs. It is not affected by sympathetic nerve blocking agents but prevents the action of epine phrine. The accelerating effect of the prostate by epinephrine administration differs in different animals. In short, the prostate receives accelerative effect of the sympathetic nerves.
Relationship between the prostate function and various hormones was examined and it was assumed that the prostate was devoid of endocrinal functions. The hypertrophy of the prostate is brought about by the administration of male hormones and gonadotrophic hormones and its atrophy can be recovered by.their administration. Hypertrophy of the prostate in castrated animals appears most markedly when a small amount of female hormone is added to the male hormone administered. Atrophy of the prostate can be effected most conveniently and simply by the administration of a large amount of female hormones or by castration.
As a part of an organized research on the toxicity of two kinds of polluted rice grains, repeatedly reported as “yellowed rice” found in rice shipment imported from southern countries, the author carried out the present study intending to elucidate the toxic effect of the yellowed rice, especially on the kidney. For this purpose, namely, the following three kinds of material were prepared : a) Inoculation of polished rice grains with Penicillium citrinum Thom. and incubation for 48 hours at 25°C produced citrinumpolluted rice. b) Inoculation of unpolish-ed rice grains with P. islandium Sopp and incubation for 20-30 days at 25°C yielded islandicum-polluted rice. Experimental animals, rats and rabbits were fed on these polluted rice grains (a) or (b) and observed for functional or morphological damage. c) Citrinin obtained from P. citrinum was administered subcutaneously or orally to mice and rats, and its effect on the kidney function was studied. The toxicologic result obtained is summarized as follows ; Experimental feeding of rats on either kinds of the artificially polluted rice resulted in slight but definite growth retardation, as well as in increased urinary output, which latter effect was especially marked with citrinum-yellowed rice. The poisoned kidneys were found markedly enlarged in size on autopsy ; their renal tubules being irregularly deformed and enlarged in calibre, most patently in lowerportions of the nephron. Hypodermic LD50 of citrinin was found 0.60 mg per 10 g body weight of mice. The pigment proved* potent for increasing the volume of urine when given orally to rats. The inulin and p-amino-hippuric acid clearance tests on the citrinized rats indicated that the activity of renal tubules for water reabsorption was inhibited by. the toxic pigment. It may thus be concluded that citrinin or its relative is the important active principle responsible not only for the acute general intoxication but also for the tubular disfunction caused by the Thai yellowed rice.
The author investigated the influences of various substances on the absorption of iron preparations, such as ferrous sulfate, ferrous lactate, ferric citrate and Na-Fe-Chlorophyllin in the large intestines of rabbits. The results obtained were as follows : The absorption of the above-mentioned iron preparations in the large intestine is promoted by the clyster of carbohydrate foods (glucose and fructose), urethane, chloral hydrate, cattle bile, ureas p-amiao-benzoic acid, PAS, sodiumbeezoate, sodium salicylate, nicotinic acid, and surface active agents (Hyren and Tween) as combined substances. Amongthe iron preparations, forric citrate showstbe most remarkable. absorption. Theabsorption promoting action of urethane is stronger than any other substances employ. ed. Also, urea promotes the absorption of ferric citrate exceedingly.
The author investigated the influence of the splenic components in combinations with l-tyrosine, l-methionine or choline chloride on the hepatic disturbance induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. An equal amount mixture of splenic components, l-tyrosine and l-methionine intensively demonstrates the inhibitory action against the hepatic disturbance. The inhibitory action of choline chloride alone is weak, but when choline chloride is administered in combination with the splenic-components of cattle, the action is promoted. In the case of an equal amount mixture of the splenic components, l-tyrosine and l-methionine further combined with choline chloride, the inhibitory action is not promoted.
Responses of normal and sympathetic denervated nictitating membranes and pupils (in situ), and of the sphincter and dilatator iridis muscles (in vitro) of cat to various autonomic drugs were comparatively studied. The drugs used were adrenaline (Ad.), noradrenaline (NAd.), Acetylcholine (ACh), pilocarpine, atropine, hexamethonium (C6) and TEA. The peripheral actions of C6 and TEA were analyzed by the effects of these drugs upon the action of Ad., NAd. and ACh. From these experimental results the innervation of nictitating membranes and pupils was discussed.
It was found that nicotine caused contraction in the isolated tracheal muscle of a rabbit, but relaxation in that of a guinea pig. These effects of nicotine were removed by hexamethonium and TEA. On the other hand, the rabbit tracheal muscle was more sensitive to acetylcholine than the guinea pig muscle, though the latter reacted more sensitive to adrenaline than the former. From the results obtained above, it is concluded that both actions of nicotine, i.e. the inhibitory action in the guinea pig muscle and the excitatory action in the rabbit muscle are of a ganglionic origin. Such a difference in the mode of nicotine action on both muscles could be the result of their sensitivities to adrenergic and cholinergic activity.