The actions of kainic acid, quisqualic acid, and ibotenic acid on the crayfish neuromuscular junction were described, and it was particularly interesting that the discrepancy between glutamate responses and EJPs was revealed by the use of kainic acid. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence showing that glutamate is an excitatory transmitter at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. At this stage, we are unable as yet to definitively support or reject glutamate's candidacy as the excitatory transmitter at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. The discrepancy revealed by the use of kainic acid may bring up some questions. Certainly, the differential action of kainic acid on the glutamate current and the excitatory synaptic current opens to doubt the transmitter role of glutamate. In the case of the study on a transmitter role for a substance of doubt status, the value of pharmacological studies seems to be greater in disproving than in asserting such the role. However, we have to consider the matter of the extra-junctional receptor postulated on the crayfish postsynaptic membrane as one of the major problems for pharmacological identification.