The experiment was carried out to study how effective the surface active agents for absorption of g-strophanthin and digitoxin administered in the stomach of a frog. The drug absorption from the alimentary tracts was estimated by measuring the time required for the cardiac arrest from the drug administration. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The absorption of g-strophanthin was promoted by Tween 80 and Tween 20 in concentrations under 0.05%, but was inhibited in the higher. (2) Saponin solution (below 0.1%) promoted the absorption of g-strophanthin. The heart was injured by saponin in a higher concentration, so that it was very difficult to judge the effect of saponin for the drug absorption. (3) Emulgen 408 (polyoxyethylen oleylether) and Aerosol IB prolonged the time to the cardiae arrest by g-strophanthin. (4) The absorption of g-stropanthin applied hypodermically was checked by adding Tween 80, Aerosol IB, and Saponin. (5) The absorption of digitoxin given gastrically was also checked by Tween 80 and Emulgen 408. Thus, the effect of Tween 80 to absorption of g-strophanthin by alimentary tracts differs from that of of digitoxin. It seems to be related with the fact that the former is not easily absorbed but latter is absorbed almost 100%. (6) The micellation phenomenon by Tween 80 (Tween 20) plays a role in the mechanism of the absorption of strophanthin, because the critical concentration promoting the drug absorption coincided with the critical micellation concentration (CMC).
Toxicological examinations with a series of samples of homosulfamine (marfanil) and its derivatives, which were prepared during the war in this country, revealed that they were all depressant and paralytic to mice. LD50 of homosulfamine administered orally, subcutaneously and. intravenously were 3.0 g, 3.5 g and 2.17 g/kg respectively. As for its three derivatives, LDSO by mouth were 7.9 g/kg with di-homosulfamine, 18.3 g/kg with homosulfapyridine and 4.5 g/kg with dimethylhomosulfamine, and when given intraperitoneally, they were 0.57 g, 0.75 g, and 0.75 g/kg with respective compounds. Kymographic examinations carried out in rabbits with homosulfamine were indicative of its comparatively high toxicity resulting in a. respiratory failure. With isolated heart-preparations of frog and toad, the cardiac function was depressed when administered in a large dose, and with some vessel-preparations of bull-frog and rabbit, the circulatory outflow through them was also temporarily disturbed.
In order to clarify the sites of action of various narcotics, hypnotics and analgesics on the somatic afferent pathway, the effects of these drugs on electrical response (the primary, secondary and third response described by Dempsey etc.) in the central nervous system produced by the stimulation of the somatic nerve were studied by making experiments on rabbits and cats. From the results it was concluded that ether, chloral hydrate, urethane and myanesin paralysed the central nervous system extensively; barbiturates as amytal, dial, luminal, evipan and pentothal sodium affected the reticular structure of the mid brain, while morphine, bromide and aminopyrine the medial thalamic nuclei.
The experiment was carried out to observe influences of Tween 80 and Emulgen 106 (Dodecylalcohol polyoxyethylen ether-made in Japan) upon the absorption of g-strophan.thin and of digitalis infusion which has been adsorbed to charcoal or alumina. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The absorption of g-strophanthin from alimentary tracts of cats was promoted by addition of Tween 80 in the lower concentration, but was inhibited in the higher concentration. (2) Digitalis infusion adsorbed to alumina was only slightly absorbed from the alimentary tracts, although the drug absorption was doubled by adding a little amount of Tween 80 (0.5 cc/kg). (3) Digitalis adsorbed to charcoal was absorbed to 20 ?? 25% when it was given together with Emulgen 106 (0.5 cc/kg) or Tween 80 (1.0 %), without -which the drug absorption did not show at all. (4) It appears clear that the promoting effect of Tween 80 upon the absorption of digitalis-charcoal or -alumina and of g-strophanthin relates with the separation of digitalis from adsorbents, which is due to oriented adsorption of Tween to the adsorbents in the place of the glycoside.