As part of a series, a study concerning the mechanism of the antiparasitic action of 4-iodothymol (IT) on Ascaris body and distribution in the various tissues after absorption was made. It was found to be taken up through the mouth and skin, however the percentage through the skin was greater. In 5hr, 50% was taken up at the concentration of 200μg/ml and almost all was unchanged in Ascaris. The rate of 131I-IT uptake was greatest in the head, with muscles of the central body being next. A rather small amount was distributed in the perienteric fluid, the gastro-intestinal ducts and the genital organs.
The authors studied, in two experimental periods (spring and summer), the influence of adrenalectomy or chronic administrations of ACTH on methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior (sniffing, biting and licking) and increase of brain amphetamine level in rats. In both spring and summer, the brain amphetamine levels were markedly increased in adrenalectomized rats. Within the limits of the spring experiment, the biting hehavior was not observed in rats which had been treated with ACTH, while the frequent appearance of sniffing behavior in adrenalectomized rats was inhibited by ACTH. Within the limits of the summer experiment, the licking behavior was not seen in rats treated with ACTH, while the lack of biting in adrenalectomized rats was restored with administration of the drug.
Substrate specificities of Ficin A, B, C and D from Ficus carica var. HORAISHI were examined with bradykinin, dansylbradykinin and synthetic substrates. These enzymes showed kininase activity, but differed greatly in their specific activities. Kinins were not released from bovine plasma kininogen. These enzymes hydrolyzed dansylbradykinin at the site of Gly4-Phe5 and Phe5-Ser6, however, the processes of the hydrolysis differed among the enzymes. Toward synthetic substrates, a part of α-N-substituted dipeptides and tripeptide was hydrolyzed but dipeptides were not. From these results, it is suggested that Ficin A, B, C and D show kininase activity, have the same specificity toward dansylbradykinin, and similar specificity toward synthetic substrates.
The relationship between pyrogenicity and rat liver mitochondrial functions induced by pyrogenic substances has been investigated herein (E. coli pyrogen, DNP and catecholamines). The following results were obtained. E. coli pyrogen, DNP and N-epinephrine elevated rat rectal temp. following i.p. injection. Mitochondrial respiration was stimulated slightly with the in vitro addition of catecholamine. Oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria was decreased after injection of pyrogens but it was reversed with the addition of the supernatant of normal rat liver mitochondria. Mitochondrial ATPase activity was decreased after injection of pyrogen, DNP and catecholamine in rats.
K-315 in an effective analgesic dose did not vary monoamine levels (nor-adrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) in mouse brain. The analgesic action of K-315 was potentiated by cocaine, but not modified by tetrabenazine and p-chlorophenylalanine, though lowered by reserpine and α-methyltyrosine. K-315 was not included in the same category as the other 4 analgesics (morphine, pethidine, dihydrocodeine and aminopyrine), regarding modification of analgesic effects due to variation of monoamine contents in the brain.
K-315 produces potentiation of catechlamine (CA) actions in vivo and in vitro. The potentiating effect of K-315 is not affected by denervation, decentralization or reserpinization. K-315 inhibits neither MAO nor COMT activities. K-315 depresses the uptake of CA into rabbit blood platelets and mouse brain slices. Mechanisms of CA potentiating effects regarding K-315 are discussed.
The present report describes the effects of cold storage (1_??_7 days) on the mechanical response of isolated guinea-pig gallbladder to transmural and chemical stimulation. Results obtained are as follows: in the cumulative dose-response analysis, the maximal contractile response to exogenous ACh was gradually reduced during the 1 to 7-day cold storage, however it was not abolished. The pD2 and pA2 (of atropine) values were not significantly different between on fresh and cold-stored preparations. The monophasic contraction induced by transmural stimulation was reduced more rapidly during the 1 to 4-day storage and abolished during the 4 to 7-day cold storage. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) or atropine prevented the contractile response to transmural stimulation. On the other hand, atropine, but not TTX, blocked the exogenous ACh-induced contraction. The maximal contractions induced by KCl and by BaCl2 were gradually reduced during the 1 to 7-day cold storage, while pD2 and pD2' (of papaverine) values on cold-stored preparations were not remarkably different from those on fresh preparations. Cold storage reduced the maximal contractile response to phenylephrine, but did not affect the maximal relaxation induced by isoprenaline. The pD2 and pA2 (of antagonist) values were not, however, significantly different between fresh and cold-stored preparations. In the K+-free medium, ouabain (10-5M), but not propranolol (3.5×10-5M) abolished the biphasic response of cold-stored preparations induced by treatment with 5.4mM KCl or by replacement of normal Ringer's solution. These results suggest that the ACh release mechanism of postganglionic cholinergic fibers was blocked after a 4-day storage at 2°C and that the specific receptor level as well as the contractile actomyosin system were unaffected by cold storage up to 7 days. The maximal contractile response was, however, gradually reduced during a one-week period of cold storage. Thus, it appears that the cold storage procedure produces a partial depolarization of cell membrane.
Tibial nerve of adult cats was cut at the level of the popliteal fossa and the epineurium of the cut ends was sutured immediately after the cutting with the aid of special rings. Vitamin B1, B6 and B12 complex (B1, 5mg/kg, B6, 5mg/kg and B12, 50γ/kg) were injected i. m. daily for about 80 days, and the effects on nerve regeneration were investigated and compared with components. Greater effects of vitamin B1, B6 and B12 complex than those of its components were as follows. 1) Gastrocnemius muscle tension. 2) Gastrocnemius muscle wt. ratio. 3) Nerve connection of the gastrocnemius muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. 4) Decubital ulcer and depilation (greater in decubital ulcer). In the soleus muscle tension and wt. ratio, no such superior effects were observed. The components of vitamin B complex (B1, B6 and B12) did not differ significantly in muscle tension, muscle wt. ratio, decubital ulcer and depilation.