6R-L-erythro-5, 6, 7, 8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (6R-BH4) is known as a cofactor for the hydroxylases of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan and also as a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase. Recently, a novel function of 6R-BH4 has been found: that is, 6R-BH4 acts on specific membrane receptors to directly stimulate the release of monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin, independently of its cofactor activity. In addition, it indirectly stimulates the release of non-monoamine neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and glutamate, through activation of monoaminergic systems. In this paper, we briefly review recent experimental data, which provide new insights into the role of 6R-BH4 as a regulator of neuronal function. We also discuss the possibility of treatment by 6R-BH4 of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression and infantile autism.