Under the electron microscope, the liver surface of normal rats has two layers, the outer mesothelial cell layer of the peritoneum and the inner connective tissue layer which consists of fibroblasts and fiber bundles. The besement membrane, about 400 to 500 A in width, is osserved beneath the mesothelial layer. The mesothelial cell of the peritoneum has numerous microvilli, 1 to 2μ in length, on the cell surface facing the peritoneal cavity and occasionally appear to be polypous at the top. The pinocytic invaginations are frequently observed on the cell membrane facing both the peritoneal cavity and the basement membrane. The space between the connective tissue layer and the liver cell sometimes appears to be directly communicating with the sinusoid through an intercellular space of the liver cell. Radioactive gold collids were infused into the portal vein of the rat in which the hepatic vein had been narrowed, and the fluid oozing from the liver surface was absorbed with pieces of gauze which were changed every 15 minutes. Considerable radioactivity was demonstrated particularly in the first 15 minutes. Electron micrographs also revealed gold particles pinocytosed into the cytoplasm of the mesothelial cell. The liver surface of rats with carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis and ascites had a thick mesothelial cell layer and a remarkably widened connective tissue layer, containing macrophages, plasma cells and dilated lymph vessels. The mesothelial cell of the liver surface in cirrhosis with ascites had many vesicles in the cytoplasm and pinocytic invagination appeared to be increased in number along the cell membranes, and the intercellular space beneath the tight junction between two mesothelial cells was frequently dilated, but no rupture of the junction was noted. Radioactive gold colloids, infused into the portal vein of cirrhotic rats with ascites, were clearly detected on the liver surface between 15 to 30 minutes after the infusion. Electron micrographs also revealed gold particles in the mesothelial cell of the liver surface. These findings suggest that the liver surface is the most important source of ascites, in its formation and that the mesothelial cell is capable of transporting fluid and some colloids.
At laparatomy of surgical disease in the upper abdomen, the specimens were collected from the gall bladder, common bile duct, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and trnsverse colon. From each of specimens, E. coli was isolated and O-serotypes were identified, and thus the ecology and physiopathology of E. cole in human intestine were examined. 1) The examination of the biliary system, E. coli was detected in choledocholithiasis with the highest percentage (50%) and cholecystolithiasis (15%), and stomach cancer (9%) were followed. No E. coli was found in ulcer froup. 2) In the duodenum and jejunum, the incidence of E. coli was the highest in the froup of choledocholithiasis (50%, 50%), followed by stomach cancer (29%, 32%), cholecystolithiasis (15%, 18%) and ulcer (5%, 4%). 3) In the terminal ileum, the detection rate was conciderably high in the following three groups: stomach cancer (72%), cholecystolithiasis (64%), choledocholithiasis (63%). On the contrary, ulcer group showed the lowest rate of 30%. 4) The group E. coli was found in the terminal ileum was associated with some other pathologic conditions than the group E. coli was found in the transverse colon only. 5) In the case E. coli was found in the upper digestive tracts above jejunum including the biliary system, this organism was found in the whole intestinal tracts as predominant resident, and only one species was found as a rule. In the group E.coli was detected only in the transverse colon, three serothpes were identified. 6) The serothpes from 0-1 to 0-25 and so called toxic E. coli were mostly detected in the upper digestive tracts. However, no this type of phenomomen was observed in the enteropathogenic E. coli.
Human gastric cancer tissue specimens were obtained from 26 operated patients, gastric fundic mucosas not infiltrated by cancer cells from 27 patients, and gastric fundic mucosas from 25 non cancer patients (gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric polyposis, and valix in cardia). The lipid was extracted from each specimen by the method of Folch et al. The phospholipid and simple lipid were fractionated quantitatively on the silicic acid columns. The contituent fatty acid from the separated total lipid, phospholipid, and simple lipid were identified and estimated by gas chromatography. The distribution of simple lipid in the cancer tissue increased more than that of simple lipid in the non cancer-bearing gastric mucosa, and that of simple lipid in the cancer-bearing mucosa increased conspicuously. The phospholipid in the cancer tissue was not different from those of phospholipid in the others. It was indicated that the stearic acid content increased in the total lipid of the cancer tissue and the oleic acid decreased, but it was not markedly indicated in the phospholipid and the simple lipid. The apportment of fatty acids in the total lipid was influenced by the ratio of phospholipid and simple lipid.
This experiment was designed to product intrahepatic gllstones by stasis of bile flow in dogs. After cholecystectomy a vinyl tube was inserted through the cystic duct into the hepatic duct of one of the middle lobes, thus causing a partial obstruction of the duct. (1) After one year and three months intrahepatic gallstone formation was observed in the intrahepatic biliary tree and that hepatic duct. (2) Chemical and infrared spectrum analysis showed that the stones were composed mainly of bilirubin, over 54 per cent, quite similar to human intrahepatic gallstone. (3) Histological findings of the liver. (i) The middle lobe with dark brown stones showed periportal fibrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes around Glisson's sheath and dark brown granular biliary sands in the relatively large intrahepatic ducts. (ii) Other hepatic lobes showed no marked change. (4) It will be expected that intrahepatic gallstone formation by stasis needs a long duration over one year.