Gastric freezing for 45 minutes was performed on 71 dogs according to the technique described by Wangensteen. In a laparotomized state, the gastric serosa temperature was recorded every 5 minutes on each dog during the freezing procedure. The main purpose was to do the fundamental analysis between the temperature compared with mucosal damage and the acid secretory function. The results are as follows:(1) Marked edema inclusive of bleeding and erosion and /or ulcer in early stages had decreased remarkably within one week.(2) Light microscopically, early changes such as mucosal necrosis and edema were gradually reepithelized to have shown circumscribed atrophy of mucosa. Outside these areas the mucosa was normal.(3) On electron microscopy, the parietal cells showed almost no changes except completely frozen area, similar to the other report.(4) Even in the early period, strong acid secretion was observed with pH-test paper, if only the fundic glands were preserved.(5) Gastric blood flow reduced 60% immediately after freezing, but after 24-48 hours increased 55% more than the normal flow. These changes returned to the normal range after one week. These results demonstrate the impossibility of acid decrease without destroying the fundic glands. For this purpose, the temperature of the gastric wall must be uniformly below the freezing point, but it seems uttermost difficult to equalize the gastric wall temperature under the present gastric freezing, unless we exclude the heat supplying sources such as the abdominal aorta, the liver and the spleen.
Range and ratio of abnormality in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in various liver diseases were reported and discussed at the viewpoint of pathophysiology. The activity was found to increase mostly in acute stage of infectious and also serum hepatitis. It was, however, almost within normal limit in subchronic including its persistent type, chronic and precirrhotic stage. Activity of serum glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) showed similar pattern of changes as alkaline phosphatasein above mentioned cases which had higher phosphatase activity at the onset. As the disease progressed the phosphatase activity was apt to increase when SGOT was remarkably high at first. In cholestatic type, it seems to be conspicuous feature of this type that alkaline phosphatase activity increased even when SGOT activity was under 100 or sometimes normal. When the isease started with positive serum colloidal reactions, serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase showed minor increase in their level. On the other hand SGOT was found to be increased rather continuously in these cases and in cholestatic type, serum alkaline phosphatase showed the tendency to return to normal even when SGOT was over 100 U. It might be considered that abnormality in mesenchymal system would diminish changes of serum alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin.
In the preliminary studies, the abnormal result of secretin test in liver cirrhosis was found more frequently in the cases with siderosis (70%) than the cases without (43%), and the author demonstrated that 2 of the 3 patients of liver cirrhosis showing increased iron absorption had both low bicarbonate concentration and low duodenal pH. The present study deals with the effect of pancreatic juice on 59Fe absorption from the isolated, perfused loop of the dog duodenum. 1) The iron absorption decreased markedly by duodenal infusion of either row or heated pancreatic juice, or cabonic buffer (bicarbonate concentration 88 mEq/l) at pH 8.8. On the contrary, no decrease of iron absorption was found in cases of duodenal infusion of pancreatin (N.B.C.), pancreatic homogenate or hydrochloric acid. 2) By mixing FeSo4solution with pancreatic juice in vitro, ferrous iron concentration was diminished when the pH of the mixture was above 6.5. 3) As a result, it was considered that the pancreatogenic factor in the control of iron absorption in the duodenum was responsible for mainly the alkalis in pancreatic juice.