(1) Protein bound dye levels were determined in the liver of the control, the vagotomized and the splanchnictomized rats after administration of 50 mg. of 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB) using a stomach tube. The maximum binding was observed about 36 hours after administration of the dye in each group. The maximum bound dye level in the vagotomized group was 40 per cent lower than that of the control rats, while no significant difference was found in the splanchnictomized rats. (2) Vagotomy lowered the bound dye level in rats fed 0.05 per cent of 3'-Me-DAB for 2-3 weeks. (3) N-Demethylase activity in the liver of vagotomized rats was 35 per cent less than that of the control rats. No significant difference was found between the control and the splanchnictomized rats. (4) Intraperitoneal administration of adrenaline or noradrenaline resulted in the decrease of N-Demethylase activity to the extent of 35 per cent, while acetylcholine showed little effect on the activity of the enzyme. (5) Low activity of N-Demethylase was found in the liver of adrenalectomized rats. The depression of N-Demethylase due to adrenalectomy was prevented by adminietration of cortisone acetate. (6) From these findings, it was concluded that the splanchnico-adrenal system possessed an inhibitory effect upon the N-Demethylase activity while the pituitary-adrenocortical system seemed necessary to maintain the normal level of the activity.
Complement components are known to have important role in tissue damage caused with antigen-antibody reaction. Also, fibrinolytic activity is agreed to have its activity in the inflammed tissue. Studying the mechanism of antigen-antibody reaction in the gastric mucosa, following experiments are performed regarding with the complement and plasmin on "Passive mucosal anaphylaxis" and on experimental ulcer with soluble antigen-antibody complex. 1) Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was observed in the guinea pig and dog, with BSA-antiBSA system according to Ovary. 2) Applying the technique of PCA on the gastric mucosa of guinea pig and dog, interesting results were obtained; namely "Passive mucosal anaphylaxis" (PMA). In the course of PMA, marked edema, cell infiltration and bleeding in the gastric mucosa were observed within 2 to 12 hours after the challenge of antigen. But, neither ulcer nor erosio could be produced, even after the injection of gastrin to the dog with PMA. 3) Antigen was given orally to the dog injected the antibody in the gastric mucosa. PMA was observed only at the angle of stomach, while it was never observed when antigen was given in the small intestine. 4) When soluble antigen-antibody complex (Ag-Ab) was injected in the gastric mucosa of guinea pig and dog, it was observed to produce erosio and ulcer at the injected area within 2 hours. Histologically, chief cells were almost destroyed, while parietal cells were still partially remained at the damaged tissue. 5) Cell preparation of gastric mucosa were obtained with the treatment of trypsin, and coated with antiBSA antibody. These coated cells were reacted with BSA, complement and human red cells, and positive immune adherence phenomenon were observed. This fact might suggest the possibility of IA for detecting cell-bound antibody, or circulating antibody against gastric mucosa in atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia. As complement and plasmin system are known to be taking a part each other in the antigen-antibody reaction, the inter-relationship of both system is studied. 6) EACA and AMCHA (antiplasmin agents) inhibited PCA reaction in the guinea pig, to which complement components might take part in. 7) EACA and AMCHA inhibited complement activity measured with C'H50 and IA in vitro, but did not inhibit in vivo with such a therapeutic dose. 8) Functionally pure human C1 eluated from EAC14, as well as euglobulin, showed fibrinolytic activity when activated by SK. This activity was decreased by mixing with EACA, AMCHA and Cu-chlorophyllin, treating with 56c°C for 30 minites, and also absorving with antigen-antibody complexes. With these experiments, C1 and plasminogen activator are supposed to have some interrelationship each other. Cell-bound C1 and plasminogen tissue activator in the tissue with PMA are studied. 9) Cell-bound C1 was titrated following the course of PMA, using the method of transferring to EAC4. Tissue activator of plasminogen was measured according to Astrup's method. C'1 and tissue activator showed parallel change in the time course of PMA. 10) Localization of C'1 in the PMA tissue was studied by fluorescent antibody technique with anti-guinea pig C'1 serum. 11) Cell-bound C'1 and tissue activator in the experimental ulcer induced with antigen-antibody complex was titrated, and parallel changes were observed as in PMA. While no relationship could be observed in human gastric ulcer, except in one case of fresh ulcer which showed high C'1 and tissue activator levels.
Many clinical and experimental studies on reflux esophagitis have been reported. However, no definite diagnostic criteria or classification has been determined. This study was undertaken to determine a diagnostic criteria of acid reflux esophagitis based on experimentally induced esophagitis by various operative procedures and histamine administration in dogs. Materials and methods: Thirty three mongrel dogs were divided into three groups according to operative procedures Thirty three mongrel dogs were divided into three groups according to operative procedures. (Cardiectomy, Wendel operation, and Heyrovsky operation) All dogs were also divided in two groups whether if histamine was administered or not. Five dogs were injected only histamine of the same dosis and the administration method without any type of operation. Endoscopic examination, intraluminal pressure measurement with pH measurement using Beckman stomach glass electrode, cinefluorographic observation was performed before and after operation. After autopsy, precise observations of the gross specimens of the esophagus were done in every case. The whole specimens were cut serially and the sections were stained. Results and conclusion In this paper, an attempt to define a criteria or a classification of esophagitis has been done in order to apply to clinical observations. (1) The grade of esophagitis was classified in four grades macroscopically according to the autopsy findings of dogs. Reddening and edema of the esophageal fold were defined as the grade I. The grade II was longitudinal linear erosion or ulceration and the grade III was conjugated erosion or ulceration. Deep ulceration and scar formation with or without esophageal stenosis were the grade IV. (2) The transitional change of esophagitis was discussed. (3) Many different features of esophagitis were understood as one process of inflammatory changes of the esophagus and not qualitative change but quantitative process. (4) A criteria for diagnosis of esophagitis was obtained radiologically, endoscopically and pathologically.
Evidences have been accumulated to show the important role of hepatic lymph in the hepatic circulation. This is especially true when disturbance of hepatic outflow exists. In four groups of dogs, I studied the following items: Hemodynamics of heart, circulation in the liver, sodium space in liver tissue, thoracic lymph flow rate, time of appearance of Na24 into thoracic duct after intravenous injection, turnover rate RISA, protein content, transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase activity in serum and lymph. Group I: Acute constriction of supradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava Group II: Ascitic dogs, induced by chronic constriction of supradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava Group III: Cardiac cirrhosis dogs, induced by tricuspid valvotomy and pulmonary artery stenosis Group IV: Hepatic fibrosis dogs, induced by carbon tetrachloride The results of this experiment will be summarized as follows: 1. Hepatic blood flow decreased most markedly because of the decreased cardiac output and the ratio of hepatic blood flow to cardiac output was slightly low than normal in dogs of Group III. 2. Protein-losing enteropathy developed in Group III and was not observed in dogs of Group II & IV. 3. In Group II cardiac cirrhosis dit not result. 4. In normal dogs, the time of appearance of Na24 into thoracic duct is within 3 minutes after intravenous injection. 5. When hepatic venous blood outflow exists, this time of appearance was shortend and sodium space in the liver tissue increased in parallel with the elevation of hepatic venous pressure. 6. Albumin concentration in lymph was higher than in serum in all groups of dogs. Increase of thoracic lymph flow rate and albumin concentration was due to the increased permeability of sinusoid in dogs with disturbance of hepatic venous outflow. 7. Transaminase activity in serum was in general higher than in lymph. Increased transaminase activity after acute constriction of inferior vena cava was, however, higher in lymph than in serum. Lactic dehydrogenase activity was higher in serum than in lymph in all groups of dogs.
In order to study the recurrence process of gastric ulcer, investigations in 73 cases were carried out by means of gastrocamera. In each case, after a disappearance of gastric ulcer, a series of gastrocamera examination was performed into the localization where the ulcer had been formerly noticed, at intervals of three or six months, and the term of each observation of these 73 cases was not definite, ranging from 1 to 3 years and over. Hence, the total number of examinations executed amounts to about 683 times (ave. 9.4 times per case). As the results of the investigations, a recurrence of ulcer was remarked 60 times in 36 cases. At the first examination, 91 ulcers with scar were found in 73 cases (ave. 1.2 per case). When the last examination was made, it was observed that the ulcers including scars had increased in number from 91 up to 144 (ave. 2.0 per case). The reason for such increase is considered to be caused by not only the recurrences but also newly formed ulcers and scars, from which it was very difficult to determine which is new or recurrent. However, it is remarkable that most of ulcers which have been observed at the last examination, located at a distance from the healed scars, and furthermore, it was very seldom for them to set on around the scar.